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Last Updated on 22 May 2019

Author: Nikolaos Giannakopoulos

CAPInv. 752: U-WAM-013


i. Geographical area Western Asia Minor
ii. Region Bithynia
iii. Site Prusa ad Olympum


i. Association with unknown name U-WAM-013


i. Date(s) ii AD


i. Source(s) I.Prusa 161 (ii AD)
Note See also Robert 1971: 135 no. 185
Online Resources I.Prusa 161
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Funerary inscription in Greek for the synkyneges Sekondos.
i.c. Physical format(s) Limestone stele with relief depicting a man seated on a couch, offering a ring or a small wreath to a woman seated on an armchair. Below the relief is a winegrower measure.
ii. Source(s) provenance The inscription was found at Boursa.


ii. Realty It is possible that a group of hunters owned a burial plot, but there is absolutely no positive evidence for this.


iv. Honours/Other activities As the formula Σεκόνδῳ τῷ συνκυνηγῇ μνήμης χάρην (Sekondoi toi synkenegei mnemes charen) implies that a group of fellow kynegoi erected a funerary inscription and possibly attended to the burial of their companion Sekondos.


i. Comments The date is based on the shape of the letters.
The term kynegos denotes either a hunter or a venator, i.e. a beast fighter (bestiarius). On such associations see Liebenam 1890: 123; Robert 1971: 321; Wiedemann 1992: 117-8 (venatores and bestiarii); Ziebarth 1896: 117; Poland 1909: 105-6 and Robert 1971: 322 (hunters). Robert (1971: 135 nr. 185 and 322) considered highly possible that Sekondos was not a venator but belonged to an association of amateur hunters; Corsten (I.Prusa 161) has pointed out that our inscription does not permit a safe conclusion, but the iconography of the stele, depicting a family-scene and a winegrower measure suggests that the deceased was a farmer as well as an active hunter.
The cost of Sekondos’ funeral and tomb may have been covered either from funds coming from a common treasury of the group (if this was an organized association) or by individual ad hoc contributions.
iii. Bibliography Liebenam, W. (1890), Zur Geschichte und Organisation des römischen Vereinswesens. Leipzig.
Poland, F. (1909), Geschichte des griechischen Vereinswesens. Leipzig.
Robert, L. (1971), Les gladiateurs dans l’Orient grec. Amsterdam.
Wiedemann, T. (1992), Emperors and Gladiators. London.
Ziebarth, E. (1896), Das griechische Vereinswesen. Leipzig.


i. Private association Possible
Note Sekondos was clearly a member of a group of kynegoi but whether this group constituted an organized private association cannot be proven.