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Author: Vincent Gabrielsen

CAPInv. 10: Haliadan kai Haliastan koinon


i. Geographical area Aegean Islands
ii. Region Rhodes
iii. Site City of Rhodes, Ialysos


i. Full name (original language) Ἁλιαδᾶν καὶ Ἁλιαστᾶν κοινόν (IG XII.1 155 d I, ll. 14-16)
ii. Full name (transliterated) Haliadan kai Haliastan koinon


i. Date(s) ii BC


i. Name in other forms Ἁλιασταὶ καὶ Ἁλιάδαι (IG XII.1 155 a II, l. 40, c IV, l. 107-8; IG XII.1 156, l. 1)
ii. Name elements
Theophoric:Helios (god), Doric Halios
iii. Descriptive terms κοινόν, koinon
ἔρανος, eranos
Note koinon: IG XII.1 155 d I, l. 14, 16, 31, 91; IG XII.1 156, l. 1
eranos: IG XII.1 155 c IV, l. 109; ibid. d I, l. 12


i. Source(s) IG XII.1 155 c IV + d I-III (ii BC)
IG XII.1 156 (ii BC)
Online Resources IG XII.1 155 and IG XII.1 156se
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script IG XII.1 155 is a compendious inscription. It consists: (I) partly of summaries of the honours awarded to Dionysodoros Alexandreus by (a) the Dionysiastai koinon (ibid. a II, ll. 40-51), (b) the Paniastai koinon (ibid. b III, ll. 74-84), (c) the Haliadai kai Haliastai koinon (ibid. c IV, ll. 105-115) and (d) an unnamed koinon (ibid. e IV, ll. 116-22); and (II) partly of the fully preserved decree of the Haliadai kai Haliastai koinon (ibid. d I, ll. 1-39, d II, ll. 52-73 and d III, ll. 85-104) which honours Dionysodoros Alexandreus. Since (c) mentions the award of honours (ateleia panton) that are absent from the decree, it must summarize the contents of a different (earlier?) honorific decree issued by the Haliadai kai Haliastai koinon.

IG XII.1 156 is a dedicatory inscription mentioning the honours awarded by the Haliadai kai Haliastai to Stratonika Halikarnassis.
i.c. Physical format(s) IG XII.1 155 is a large rectangular stele of greyish marble, now in the Museo del Seminario Patriarchale in Venice: description with photos in Guarducci 1942: 16-29, no. III. All four faces of the stele are inscribed. In their upper part, three of the faces are decorated with wreaths. The section with the summary concerning the Dionysiastai is headed by a laurel wreath, the section concerning the Haliastai and Haliadai by two juxtaposed wreaths, one of olive-leaves with bands, the other of laurel leaves without bands.

IG XII.1 156: round, ornamented base that originally supported a statue of Stratonika Halikarnassis.
ii. Source(s) provenance IG XII.1 155: city of Rhodes (now in Venice)
IG XII.1 156: found in a field along the road that led from Rodini (Sübüllü in Turkish) to the village Koskinou (located ca. 6 km from the city of Rhodes); this area was part of the necropolis of the city of Rhodes.


ii. References to buildings/objects Tombs (τάφοι, taphoi: IG XII.1 155 d II, l. 68) within burial grounds, often called τόποι (topoi: Paniastai koinon, ibid. b III, l. 82).
Tomb monument (μναμεῖον, mnameion) of Dionysodoros within the burial grounds: ibid. d II, l. 90.


ii. Leadership Ἀρχερανιστάς, Archeranistas
The summary of a separate honorific decree (IG XII.1 155 c IV, ll. 105-115) informs that by that time Dionysodoros had been archeranistas of the Haliadai and Haliastai koinon for twenty-three years; the fully preserved decree (ibid. d I, ll. 4-5) informs that he had been a member for thirty-five years.
iii. Members Referred to as τὸ πλῆθος, to plethos ('the multitude': IG XII.1 156, l. 5; IG XII.1 155 d I, l. 6) and as οἱ ἐρανισταί, eranistai (ibid. ll. 38, 94-5), while the fact of being a member is expressed with the phrase ὁ ἐρανίζων τοῦ κοινοῦ, ho eranizon tou koinou (l. 4). Moreover, ἰδιώται, idiotai (lit. 'private individuals', though here 'ordinary members') are distinguished from ἄρχοντες, archontes (ibid. ll. 97-8).
Dionysodoros Alexandreus had been a member of the association for thirty-five years (ibid. d I, ll. 4-5), and, according to c IV, l. 108, its archeranistas for twenty-three years.
The various sections of this compendious inscription attest to Dionysodoros' (probably simultaneous) membership of at least two other associations (see also NS 46), in one of which (the Paniastai) he had been archeranistas for eighteen years.
iv. Officials Officials are collectively called ἄρχοντες, archontes (IG XII.1 155 d I, ll. 20, 29-30, 99). Individual officials, additional to the archeranistas: γραμματεύς, grammateus (secretary, ibid. l. 19), ἐπιστάτας, epistatas (steward, l. 30), ἱεροκᾶρυξ, hierokaryx (sacred herald, l. 31) and λογισταί, logistai (auditors, ibid d.II, l. 54)
Known practice of appointment Officials are elected by hairesis procedure (IG XII.I 155 d I, l. 21)
vi. Laws and rules In addition to the ψάφισμα (psaphisma) in IG XII.1 155 d I, l. 26; d III, ll. 90, 96 (and further psaphismata, e.g. ibid. c IV, ll. 105-115), the Haliadai kai Haliastai koinon had (a) a 'current law' (ὁ νόμος ὡς κεῖται, ho nomos hos keitai, i.e. presumably one currently subject to changes: IG XII.1 155 d.III, l. 93:); and (b) an 'unmovable', i.e. unchangeable, law (ὁ νόμος ὁ ἀκίνητος, ho nomos ho akinetos) probably the association's founding statutes (ibid. ll. 103-4).
One of these two law-sets prescribed the maximum value of the gold wreath that the association could award as the greatest honour (ibid. d I, l.18).
It is to be noted that the psaphisma contains the condition-clause κυρωθεισᾶν τᾶνδε τᾶν τιμᾶν, kyrotheisan tande tan timan (ibid. l. 15), which is also a feature of the decrees of the Rhodian state.
vii. Judicial system Officials not complying with the orders of the decree in IG XII.1 155 are to be fined to pay 100 dr.; the offense is to be regarded as one committed against the association (ibid. ll. 91-4).
Moreover, any member is allowed to bring an ἀπογραφή (apographe) against the debtor (i.e. to denounce him with a view to confiscating his property) for the amount of the fine, the ἐπιτίμιον (epitimion: ibid. ll. 94-5).
Finally, the psaphisma prohibits any ordinary member (ἰδιώτης, idiotes) either to propose a motion (μήτε κινεῖν, mete kinein), or write down a decision (μήτε γνώμαν γράψασθαι, mete gnoman grapsasthai) that invalidates the honours awarded. Likewise, the officials are prohibited to put forth any proposal that has the same effect. In either case, the transgressor is to be fined 100 dr., his proposal will be nill and void and he will be regarded as guilty (ἔνοχος, enochos) in accordance with the 'unmovable law' (ll. 96-104).
viii. Obligations For purchasing the wreath with which to honour a co-member, each member has to pay three obols at each assembly (σύνοδος, synodos, ibid. ll. 22-3).
That members carried a number of recurrent obligations is implied by the custom of the association to honour members with the grant of ἀτέλεια πάντων (ateleia panton), 'exemption from all dues (τέλη, tele)' (IG XII.1 155, c IV, l. 114).
ix. Privileges It may be the case that all members are offered the possibility of being buried in the burial grounds of the association. (see VI.ii)


i. Treasury/Funds In addition to the funds collected ad hoc for the purchase of the honorary wreath (IG XII.1 155 d I, ll. 22-23), it is implied (ibid. d II, ll. 59-66) that the association had its own funds for which the secretary (grammateus) kept a ledger (ἀπόλογοι, apologoi: l. 63); the fines payable in cases of transgression (see ' Law and rules' above) presumably went into this treasury.
ii. Realty The tombs and monument (οἱ τάφοι, hoi taphoi, το μναμεῖον, to mnameion: see VI.ii) of the Haliadai kai Haliastai koinon were almost certainly their property.
iii. Income According to the decree in IG XII.1 155 d I, the gold wreath with which Dionysodoros is to be honoured after his death (probably yearly) is being sold right after the crowning ceremony (ll. 57-9). The sum accruing from this sale (τὸ εὑρόν, to euron, l. 59), and which the secretary is instructed to write up in the ledger (ll. 62-3), must be regarded as a form of recurring income; since the operation was repeated, the incoming sum was probably re-used for purchasing the next-year's wreath.
Fines paid by members form part of the association's income (IG XII.1 155 d. III, ll. 94-5).
Finally, regular payment of 'dues' (τέλη, tele) by members, in cash and/or in kind, would have represented a form of income.


ii. Gender Men
Note Male members (IG XII.1 155 c IV + d I-III); and if, as seems very probable, the Stratonika who is honoured in IG XII.1 156 was a member, female members as well.
iii. Age Adults
Note All members so far attested are adults.
iv. Status The proposer of the decree in IG XII.1 155 d I, l. 2 is Boulagoras Rhodios, almost certainly a Rhodian citizen (see Gabrielsen 1992: 66 no. 5); the honorand in the same decree, Dionysodoros, is a foreigner from Alexandria in Egypt.
Stratonika, of IG XII.1 156 (accepting that she was a member), originated from Halikarnassos.


i. Assemblies The association holds deliberative assemblies called σύλλογοι, sing. σύλλογος (syllogoi, syllogos (IG XI.1 155 d I, l. 23, d II, l. 57, 61). Since ibid. d II, ll. 60-1, dates an event with reference to the syllogos held in a specific month, the inference is that there were more syllogoi in a year.
ii. Meetings and events The association seems to have held several recurrent meetings, which can be reconstructed as follows:
(1) Σύνοδοι (sing. σύνοδος, synodoi, synodos: ibid. d I, l. 23) were gatherings that lasted for at least two days and were mostly devoted to religious rites and commemoration ceremonies: reference to the proclamation (ἀναγόρευσις, anagoreusis) of honours during the synodoi, 'on the second day of these gathering and right after ta hiera', indicates that the first day of the synodoi was primarily used to hold a deliberative assembly (syllogos); furthermore, the expression ἐν τῶι συλλόγωι ἐν τῶι | ἐχομένωι μηνὶ τᾶν συνόδων, en toi syllogoi en toi echomenoi meni tan synodon (ibid. d II, ll. 60-1) implies that there were more syllogoi in a year (perhaps one every month) than there were synodoi. The second day of these gathering was devoted to sacrifices and commemorative rites at the tombs of deceased members (ibid. d II, ll. 57- 8).
(2) Every year, in the Rhodian month of Hyakinthios (roughly August), a special commemorative ceremony took place at the burial grounds of the association, during which proclamations of honours for deceased members and the placement of wreaths on their tomb monuments took place (ibid. d II, ll. 66-9, III, ll. 87-9). That this ceremony was an event separate from the others is indicated partly by the fact that the wreath to be used for crowing the tomb of a deceased member was purchased through a special collection of money, partly by the fact that the association's officials were instructed to spend the amount collected in its entirety (katachreisthon, d III, l. 86).
iii. Worship τὰ ἱερά (ta hiera), mentioned ibid. d I, l. 28 in connection with the synodoi, must refer to (or must have included) sacrifices. For further details, see 'X.ii. Meetings & Events' above.
From the dedication made by Dionysodoros, mentioned at ibid. c IV, l. 115, it appears that the association worshipped Dionysos Bakcheios.
Deities worshipped Dionysos Bakcheios
iv. Honours/Other activities The Haliadai kai Haliastai are attested to have awarded the following kinds of honours (τίμια, timia, ibid. d II, l. 24):
(1) The title of εὐεργέτας τοῦ κοινοῦ (euergetas tou koinou, Benefactor of the association) to Dionysodoros Alexandreus (ibid. d I,1, ll. 3-4); and the title εὐεργετὶς τοῦ κοινοῦ (euergetis tou koinou, Benefactress of the association) to Stratonika Halikarnassis (IG XII, 1 156, l. 3).
(2) ἔπαινος (epainos, praise: c IV, l. 110, d II, ll. 15-16) to Dionysodoros.
(3) στεφάνωσις (stephanosis, crowning) of the honorand with an olive wreath (θαλλοῦ στέφανος, thallou stephanos); awarded to both Dionysodoros and Stratonika (IG XII.1 155 c IV, l. 111; IG XII.1 156, l. 2); Dionysodoros, moreover, was the first member ever to be so honoured (ibid. c IV, l. 111).
(4) στεφάνωσις (stephanosis, crowning) of the honorand with a gold wreath; in Dionysodoros' case, 'the largest [i.e. the costliest] one allowed by the law' of the association (ibid. d II, l. 18).
(5) Specification that whatever honours (τά τίμια, ta timia) awarded will be valid for perpetuity, i.e. they are to continue to be valid after the honorand's death (καὶ μεταλάξαντι τὸν βίον, kai metalaxanti ton bion, d. II, ll. 24-5; IG XII.1 156, ll. 2-3); in which case, the stephanosis and other honours take place at the deceased member's tomb monument (mnameion).
(6) ἀναγόρευσις (anagoreusis), i.e., the recurrent proclamation of whatever honours are granted during the formal gatherings of the membership (IG XII.1 155 d I, ll. 30-8), including those at their burial grounds (ibid. d II, ll. 66-7).
(7) ἀτέλεια πάντων (ateleia panton): exemption from all dues, IG XII.1 155 c IV, l. 114).

The honours are justified with reference to:
(1) the honorand's contribution to the ἐπαύξησις (epauxesis, the increase of the grandeur) of the association (ibid. c IV, ll. 108-9).
(2) The honorand's being continuously an ἀγαθὸς ἀνήρ (agathos aner) towards the membership, providing many and great services to the koinon (ibid. d II, ll. 5-8) and performing benefactions towards it (εὐεργετεῖν τὸν ἔρανον, euergetein ton eranon, d II, l. 12).
(3) The honorand's εὔνοια (eunoia) and φιλοτιμία (philotimia) towards the membership (πλῆθος, plethos)(IG XII.1 156, ll. 3-4).
(4) The association's wish to make it apparent to all (a) that it honours those who choose to be its benefactors, and (b) that it reciprocates their benefactions with gratitude of equal worth (καταξίας χάριτας, kataxias charitas, d II, ll. 10-11).


i. Comments For the unlikelihood that the Haliastai, in NS no. 46 B, l. 5, is an abbreviation of the full name (so Hiller von Gaertringen 1900; Fraser 1977: 66-7 with nn. 354, 359, 379-82), see Gabrielsen 1994: 148-50.
ii. Poland concordance Poland B 267a (IG XII.1 155)
Poland B* 267c (IG XII.1 156)
iii. Bibliography Fraser, P.M. (1977), Rhodian Funerary Monuments. Oxford.
Gabrielsen, V. (1992), 'The Status of Rhodioi in Hellenistic Rhodes', C&M 43: 43-69.
Gabrielsen, V. (1994), 'The Rhodian Associations Honouring Dionysodoros from Alexandria', C&M 45: 137-60.
Guarducci, M. (1942), 'Le iscrizioni di Venezia', RIA 9: 7-53.
Hiller von Gaertringen, F., and Saridakis, S. (1900), 'Inschriften aus Rhodos', MDAI(A) 25: 107-10.


i. Private association Certain
Note The use of the terms ἔρανος, ἐρανισταί (eranos, eranistai, etc.) to describe this koinon confirms that it was a private association.
ii. Historical authenticity Both of the relevant inscriptions (IG XII.1 155 and 156) render the historical authenticity of this association indisputable.