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Last Updated on 14 Mar 2017

Author: Alexandru Avram

CAPInv. 1281: he synodos he peri hierea X


i. Geographical area Black Sea Region
ii. Region North coast of the Black Sea
iii. Site Pantikapaion


i. Full name (original language) ἡ σύνοδος ἡ περὶ ἱερέα τὸν δεῖνα (CIRB 79A, 80, 81, 88, 90-92, 94, 102, [106], 108)
ii. Full name (transliterated) he synodos he peri hierea X


i. Date(s) l. i - m. iii AD


ii. Name elements
Personal:peri hierea X
iii. Descriptive terms σύνοδος, synodos
Note synodos: CIRB 79A, 80, 81, 88, 90-92, 94, 102, 106, 108


i. Source(s) CIRB 79A (l. i - f. ii AD).
CIRB 80 (l. i - f. ii AD).
CIRB 81 (f. ii AD).
CIRB 88 (f. ii AD).
CIRB 90 (ii AD).
CIRB 91 (f. ii AD).
CIRB 92 (ii AD).
CIRB 94 (f. ii AD).
CIRB 101 (f. iii AD).
CIRB 102 (f. iii AD).
CIRB 106 (possibly ii AD).
CIRB 108 (possibly ii AD).
Note Other publications:
CIRB 80: IOSPE II 62; GGSR 454
CIRB 81: IOSPE II 61; GGSR 455
CIRB 90: IOSPE IV 210; GGSR 629a
Online Resources CIRB 79A and AGRW ID 1761
CIRB 80 and AGRW ID 7564
CIRB 81 and AGRW ID 7568
CIRB 88 and AGRW ID 7624
CIRB 90 and AGRW ID 7630
CIRB 91 and AGRW ID 7635
CIRB 92 and AGRW ID 7638
CIRB 101 and AGRW ID 7663
CIRB 102 and AGRW ID 7665
CIRB 106
CIRB 108
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Greek tombstones put by the synodos for some of its members.
i.c. Physical format(s) CIRB 79A: pedimental limestone stele with broken relief. The stele has been re-used in the second half of the 2nd century AD, when another inscription (B) was carved.
CIRB 80: pedimental limestone stele with relief depicting a warrior (same workshop as CIRB 88).
CIRB 81: pedimental limestone stele with relief depicting a warrior.
CIRB 88: pedimental limestone stele with relief depicting a warrior (same workshop as CIRB 80).
CIRB 90: fragmentary limestone stele restored from three joining parts. The broken relief depicts a horseman and another rider.
CIRB 91: fragmentary limestone stele with relief representing a horseman.
CIRB 92: fragmentary limestone stele broken at the bottom.
CIRB 94: fragmentary pedimental limestone stele broken at the bottom.
CIRB 101: fragmentary limestone stele partly restored from two joining parts.
CIRB 102: fragmentary limestone stele partly restored from two joining parts.
CIRB 106: fragmentary limestone stele.
CIRB 108: fragmentary limestone stele partly restored from two joining parts.
ii. Source(s) provenance Pantikapaion


ii. Leadership On the basis of the name of the group, the leader was a ἱερεύς, hiereus. The following names are registered:
Pantagathos in CIRB 80, ll. 2-3; Kalous in CIRB 81, l. 2; Chariton son of Menios in CIRB 88, ll. 2-3; K[..]eto[s] son of [P]oth[os] in CIRB 90, ll. 2-3; Myron in CIRB 91, ll. 1-2; Theophilos in CIRB 92, ll. 2-3; De[ - - ] in CIRB 94, l. 3; De[ - - ] in CIRB 102, l. 2; Helitas son of Thou[ - - ] in CIRB 108, ll. 3-5.
It is very possible that the deceased of CIRB 79A, l. 1, was also a ἱερεύς, hiereus (see XII.i: Comments).
iii. Members Mentioned as οἱ λοιποὶ θ(ε)ιασ(ε)ῖται, l. θιασῖται hoi loipoi thiasitai, in CIRB 79A, l. 5; 88, ll. 6-7; 90, ll. 13-14; or οἱ λοιποὶ συνοδεῖται, l. συνοδῖται hoi loipoi synoditai (CIRB 101, ll. 2-3; 106, ll. 7-9). The tombstones mention the names of eight deceased who formerly had been members of the association (CIRB 79A, l. 1; 80, ll. 9-10; 81, l. 8; 88, l. 1; 90, ll. 14-16; 101, ll. 3-4; 102, l. 6; 106, ll. 11-12). One of them (CIRB 79A, l. 1) was probably a hiereus and another one (CIRB 88, l. 1) a synagogos (see XII.i: Comments).
iv. Officials One συναγωγός, synagogos (CIRB 79A, ll. 2-3; 80, ll. 3-4; 81, ll. 3-4; 90, ll. 3-5; 91, ll. 2-3; 92, ll. 3-4; 106, ll. 4-7).
One φιλάγαθος, philagathos (CIRB 79A, ll. 4-5; 80, ll. 4-5; 81, ll. 4-5; 88, ll. 3-4; 90, ll. 5-7; 91, ll. 4-5; 92, ll. 5-6; 102, l. 3).
One παραφιλάγαθος, paraphilagathos (CIRB 80, ll. 6-7; 81, ll. 5-7; 88, ll. 4-5; 90, ll. 7-9; 91, ll. 5-6).
One πραγματᾶς, l. πραγματῆς, pragmatas, l. pragmates (CIRB 79A, ll. 4-5; 80, ll. 7-8; 81, ll. 7-8; 102, l. 4, restored).
ix. Privileges Given the fact that the association set up tombs for its members, burial and funerary expenses by the association may have been one of the members' privileges.


ii. Gender Men
Note The attested names are male names.
iii. Age Adults


iv. Honours/Other activities The association set up tombs for his members.


i. Comments Σύνοδος, synodos normally designates the assembly of a θίασος, thiasos: cf. Gauthier in BE 2001: no. 312, and Chaniotis in SEG 47: 1199 and 49: 1053.
All the inscriptions seem to belong to the same association. The distinctive feature of all these documents is that they mention (or allow to postulate) a ἱερεύς, hiereus, as head of the association. The συναγωγός, synagogos, occurs every time as second official. There is no evidence in this regard for CIRB 101 (cf. Zavojkina 2012: 253-4), where only the end of the text is preserved: it might belong either to our association or to that described in CAPInv. 1285. In CIRB 106 we can likely restore ll. 1-5: [ἡ σύνοδος ἡ περὶ ἱερέα - - - καὶ] συν̣α̣γ[ω]γὸν κτλ. ([he synodos he peri hierea --- kai] synag[o]gon etc., Avram).
Two of the steles (CIRB 80 and 81) have been found in 1875 in the same archaeological context and their texts are rather identical (the same offices are mentioned). The deceased is in both cases a certain Mastous, son of Mastous. Some scholars argued that the same person received funeral honours from two different associations, whose member he might have been. Nevertheless, this would suppose two different tombstones for the same person; moreover, the name Mastous is very common in the Bosporan Kingdom (26 occurrences listed in LGPN IV, besides 10 other ones in Tanais). Thus, we are rather invited to assume that the same association put tombstones for two different persons (possibly father and son).
A third stele (CIRB 79A) also mentions a συναγωγός, synagogos, a φιλάγαθος, philagathos, and a πρα<γμα>τᾶς, pra<gma>tas, but not the ἱερεύς, hiereus. It is, therefore, possible that the ἱερεύς, hiereus, was the deceased himself.
We note, on the other hand, that CIRB 79A, 80, 81 and 102 are the only four inscriptions from the Bosporan Kingdom where the office of the πραγματᾶς, pragmatas is attested.
Another tombstone (CIRB 88) has a relief which stands stylistically very close to that of CIRB 80 (Zavojkina 2012: 48), therefore, this document very probably belongs to the same association. Its text runs quite identically with that of CIRB 79A. We have here a ἱερεύς, hiereus, a φιλάγαθος, philagathos and a παραφιλάγαθος, paraphilagathos, the λοιποὶ θιασῖται, loipoi thiasitai (as in CIRB 79A) but not the συναγωγός, synagogos. Therefore, one might speculate that this time the deceased was the synagogos. Moreover, this title could be restored in the lacuna following his name:
Σάϊον [συναγωγὸν] ἡ σύνοδος | περὶ ἡρέαν Χαρίτωνα Μη|νίου κτλ., Saion [synagogon] he synodos | peri herean Charitona Me|niou etc.
ii. Poland concordance Poland B 114 (CIRB 81)
Poland B 115 (CIRB 80)
Poland B 116 (CIRB 79A)
Poland B 117 F (CIRB 90)
iii. Bibliography Harland, P.A. (2014), Greco-Roman Associations: Texts, Translations, and Commentaries. II. North Coast of the Black Sea, Asia Minor. Berlin, Boston: 22 (for CIRB 80).
Jajlenko, V.P. (2010): Tysjacheletnij Bosporskij Rejkh [A Thousand Year Bosporan Reich (sic)]. Moscow: 534-5 (about CIRB 88 and 90).
Kreuz, P.-A. (2012), Die Grabreliefs aus dem Bosporanischen Reich. Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA.: 791 no. 828 (CIRB 88); 792 no. 830 (CIRB 80); 792-3 no. 831 (CIRB 81); 870-71 no. 1004 (CIRB 90).
Ustinova, Y. (1999), The Supreme Gods of the Bosporan Kingdom. Celestial Aphrodite and the Most High God. Leiden, Boston, Cologne: 196-7.
Zavojkina, N.V. (2012), Bosporskie fiasy: mezhdu polisom i monarkhiej [Bosporan Thiasoi: Between Polis and Monarchy]. Moscow: 45-52 and 253-5 (about CIRB 101 and 102).


i. Private association Certain
Note The terminology employed suggests a private association.