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Last Updated on 14 Mar 2017

Author: Alexandru Avram

CAPInv. 1285: he synodos he peri synagogon ton X


i. Geographical area Black Sea Region
ii. Region North coast of the Black Sea
iii. Site Pantikapaion


i. Full name (original language) ἡ σύνοδος ἡ περὶ συναγωγὸν τὸν δεῖνα (CIRB 83-87, 89, 93, 107)
ii. Full name (transliterated) he synodos he peri synagogon ton X


i. Date(s) l. i - ii AD


ii. Name elements
Personal:peri synagogon ton X
iii. Descriptive terms σύνοδος, synodos
Note synodos: CIRB 83-87, 89, 93, 107


i. Source(s) CIRB 82 (l. i AD).
CIRB 83 (e. ii AD).
CIRB 84 (e. ii AD).
CIRB 85 (ii AD).
CIRB 86 (ii AD).
CIRB 87 (f. ii AD).
CIRB 89 (f. ii AD).
CIRB 93 (ii AD).
CIRB 107 (possibly ii AD).
SEG 59: 845 (ii AD).
Note Other publications:
CIRB 84: IOSPE II 60; GGSR 648
CIRB 86: IOSPE IV 469; GGSR 50a
CIRB 87: IOSPE IV 208; GGSR 593
Online Resources CIRB 82 and AGRW ID 7575
CIRB 83 and AGRW ID 7600
CIRB 84 and AGRW ID 7606
CIRB 85 and AGRW ID 7611
CIRB 86 and AGRW ID 7615
CIRB 87 and AGRW ID 7620
CIRB 89 and AGRW ID 7627
CIRB 93 and AGRW ID 7642
CIRB 107
AGRW ID 24238 (for SEG 59: 845)
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Greek tombstones set up by the synodos for some of its members.
i.c. Physical format(s) CIRB 82: fragmentary limestone stele broken at the top.
CIRB 83: pedimental limestone stele (two joining fragments) with relief depicting a horseman, behind him another rider and, in front of him, a child.
CIRB 84: pedimental limestone stele with the same relief as above (same workshop).
CIRB 85: fragmentary limestone stele with broken relief.
CIRB 86: fragmentary limestone stele broken at the bottom.
CIRB 87: fragmentary limestone stele with damaged relief depicting a horseman.
CIRB 89: fragmentary limestone stele.
CIRB 93: partly damaged limestone stele.
CIRB 107: fragmentary limestone stele.
SEG 59, 845: fragmentary limestone stele broken on the left and at the bottom.


ii. Leadership Συναγωγός, synagogos.
The following names are attested: Maes son of Kallisthenes in CIRB 83, ll. 1-3; Menios son of Menios in CIRB 84, ll. 2-3; Hermogenes in CIRB 86, l. 2; Makarios son of Her[mogen]es in CIRB 87, ll. 5-7; Zoutoumas in CIRB 89, ll. 1-2; Phi[l]ox[e]nos in CIRB 93, ll. 1-3; Sab[bi]on in CIRB 107, ll. 1-2; Pa[ - - ] in SEG 59, 845.
iii. Members Mentioned as οἱ λ̣οιποὶ θ̣ιασεῖται, l. θ̣ιασῖται hoi loipoi thiasitai (CIRB 83, ll. 7-8; 87, ll. 4-5; 89, ll. 6-7; 93, ll. 7-8) or οἱ λοιποὶ συνοδεῖται, l. συνοδῖται, hoi loipoi synoditai (CIRB 84, ll. 7-8).
The names of seven deceased are known, including a συναγωγός, synagogos (CIRB 87): CIRB 82, ll. 7-9; 83, ll. 9-10; 84, ll. 8-9; 86, l. 1; 87, ll. 5-6; 89, l. 8; 93, l. 9). Two of them are designated as synoditai (CIRB 83 and 86).
iv. Officials One φιλάγαθος, philagathos (CIRB 83, ll. 3-5; 84, ll. 2-5; 86, l. 3; 89, ll. 3-4; 93, ll. 3-4; 107, ll. 2-3; SEG 59: 845, ll. 3-4).
One παραφιλάγαθος, paraphilagathos (CIRB 82, ll. 1-3; 83, ll. 5-7; 84, ll. 5-7; 93, ll. 4-6; 107, l. 4; SEG 59: 845, l. 5; perhaps also in CIRB 86, see XII.i: Comments).
One γραμματεύς, grammateus (CIRB 82, ll. 3-5; 89, ll. 4-5; 93, ll. 6-7).
ix. Privileges Given the fact that the association set up tombstones for tis members, funerary expenses by the association may have been one of the members' privileges.


ii. Gender Men
Note The preserved names are male names.
iii. Age Adults


iv. Honours/Other activities The association set up tombstones for its members.


i. Comments Σύνοδος, synodos normally designates the assembly of a θίασος, thiasos: cf. Gauthier in BE 2001: no. 312 and Chaniotis in SEG 47: 1199 and 49: 1053.
The mentioned texts are likely to originate from the same association. Most of these documents have in common that, contrary to the records used in order to describe the association CAPInv. 1281, a συναγωγός, synagogos is mentioned as head of the association, while the ἱερεύς, hiereus is absent. The συναγωγός, synagogos does not occur in two records. CIRB 82 is fragmentary (only the last part of the text is preserved) but from the presence of the γραμματεύς, grammateus (cf. CIRB 89 and 93) we can infer that, contrary to the association CAPInv. 1281 (where the secretary is a πραγματᾶς, l. πραγματῆς, pragmatas, l. pragmates), this inscription belongs to our association. CIRB 85 has no titles after the ἡ σύνοδος ἡ περὶ κτλ., he synodos he peri formula but from this point of view it stands close to CIRB 87, where the members (without titles) of the σύνοδος , synodos, set up the gravestone for their fellow member, who is explicitely called συναγωγός, synagogos. Therefore, it is highly probable that, despite the absence of an explicit mention of the συναγωγός, synagogos, at the head, both CIRB 82 and 85 belong to the same association.
CIRB 83 and 84 stand stylistically very close. We add CIRB 86 because its text has the same structure: only the παραφιλάγαθος, paraphilagathos is lacking but we can reasonably suppose that he was the deceased himself.
ii. Poland concordance Poland B 113 (CIRB 84)
Poland B 117 (CIRB 107)
Poland B 117 A (CIRB 87)
Poland B 117 B (CIRB 93)
Poland B 117 E (CIRB 82)
Poland B 117 H (CIRB 86)
iii. Bibliography Kreuz, P.-A. (2012), Die Grabreliefs aus dem Bosporanischen Reich. Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: 501 no. 105 (CIRB 86); 814 no. 883 (CIRB 87); 876 no. 1017 (CIRB 84); 877 no. 1018 (CIRB 83); 947 no. 1156 (CIRB 82).
Ustinova, Y. (1999), The Supreme Gods of the Bosporan Kingdom. Celestial Aphrodite and the Most High God. Leiden, Boston, Cologne: 196-7.
Saprykin, S.J. (2009): ‘Savromat II i fiasy Bospora [Sauromates II and the Thiasoi of the Bosporus]’, Drevnosti Bospora 13: 333-45 (SEG 59: 845).
Zavojkina, N.V. (2012), Bosporskie fiasy: mezhdu polisom i monarkhiej [Bosporan Thiasoi: Between Polis and Monarchy]. Moscow: 57-63.


i. Private association Certain
Note The terminology employed points to a private association.