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Last Updated on 14 Mar 2017

Author: Alexandru Avram

CAPInv. 1310: theasos [i.e. thiasos] naukleron


i. Geographical area Black Sea Region
ii. Region North coast of the Black Sea
iii. Site Gorgippia


i. Full name (original language) θέασος [i.e. θίασος] ναυκλήρων (CIRB 1134, l. 6)
ii. Full name (transliterated) theasos [i.e. thiasos] naukleron


i. Date(s) ii - m. iii AD


ii. Name elements
Professional:naukleroi, sea merchants.
iii. Descriptive terms θίασος, thiasos
Note thiasos: CIRB 1134, l. 6


i. Source(s) CIRB 1129 (AD 173-211?).
CIRB 1130 (f. ii AD).
CIRB 1131 (ii AD).
CIRB 1134 (AD 173-211).
CIRB 1135 (AD 173-211).
IGRR I 912 = CIRB 1230 (AD 229-231).
SEG 29: 707 (l. ii - e. iii AD).
SEG 36: 700 (AD 173-211).
SEG 36: 705 (c. AD 200).
Note Other publications:
CIRB 1129: IOSPE IV 434
CIRB 1134: AGRW 84, GRA II 93
Online Resources CIRB 1129 and AGRW ID 7788
CIRB 1130
CIRB 1131
CIRB 1134 and AGRW ID 1750
CIRB 1135 and AGRW ID 7791
CIRB 1230
SEG 29: 707
SEG 36: 700 and AGRW ID 20417
SEG 36: 705
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script All the records are in Greek and more or less fragmentary. The main documents are CIRB 1129 (with improved restoration in Smirnova 2001: 356-7; cf. Jajlenko 2010: 609-11; Zavojkina 2012: 259-62) and 1134 (which reveals the name of the association), both dedications of the association to Poseidon, followed by lists of members. We can add SEG 36: 700, a decision (?) of the same association (although its name is restored), which is called γραφή, graphe (l. 2). The other records are fragmentary and their nature remains unknown.
i.c. Physical format(s) CIRB 1129: four fragments of a marble stele (the two lower fragments join).
CIRB 1130: fragment of a marble stele.
CIRB 1131: small fragment of a marble stele.
CIRB 1134: five fragments of a marble stele (four joining pieces in the upper part, the last one to be placed on the bottom).
CIRB 1135: more joining fragments of a marble stele.
CIRB 1230: fragment of a marble stele.
SEG 29, 707: lower edge of a marble stele.
SEG 36, 700: two fragments of a marble stele.
SEG 36, 705: small fragment of a marble stele.
ii. Source(s) provenance Gorgippia, with the exception of CIRB 1230, found in the neighbourhood (1894, formerly Yekaterinodar).


ii. References to buildings/objects Sacred statues (ἀγάλματα, agalmata) and a temple (ναός, naos) of Poseidon (CIRB 1134, ll. 7-8) (see X.iv: Honours/other activities).


ii. Leadership One ἱερεύς, hiereus (Pharnakion [Po]thou in CIRB 1129 [cf. Smirnova 2001: 356-7], if the restoration π[ερὶ ἱερέα]ν, p[eri hierea]n [sic], l. 1, is reliable; Athenodoros Seleukou in CIRB 1134, ll. 10-11, and SEG 36: 700, ll. 3-4; N[ - - ]os Thyo[ - - ] in CIRB 1135, l. 6)
One συναγωγός, synagogos ([A]thenodoros Pa[n]taleonto[s] in CIRB 1129, ll. 4-5; an anonymous in CIRB 1131, l. 3; Moirodoros Neokleous in CIRB 1134, ll. 11-12, and SEG 36: 700, ll. 4-5; Di[ - - S]ymmachou in CIRB 1135, ll. 6-7), possibly as collegial leaders. CIRB 1129, ll. 2-5 (restored), and 1134, ll. 10-12, mention a ἱερεύς ἐπὶ Γοργιπ[πί]ας, hiereus epi Gorgip[pi]as / πρῶτος ἐπὶ τῆς βασι̣λείας, protos epi tes ba[s]ileias, and a συναγωγός, synagogos / συναγωγὸς ... ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς Γοργιππείας, synagogos ... ho epi tes Gorgipeias.
iii. Members Members were reffered to as θιασ(ε)ῖται, thiasitai (CIRB 1129, l. 7; 1230, l. 6; SEG 27, 707 [?]).
iv. Officials One φροντιστής, phrontistes (CIRB 1129, ll. 6-7; 1135, ll. 7-8; SEG 36: 700, l. 5, restored) or two (?) φροντισταί, phrontistai (CIRB 1134, ll. 13-14).
One ἱερῶν οἰκονόμος, hieron oikonomos (CIRB 1130, l. 7, restored; 1134, l. 14; SEG 36: 700, l. 6, restored). The same official is designated as ἐπὶ τῶν ἱερῶν, epi ton hieron in CIRB 1129, ll. 5-6.
vi. Laws and rules A decision (?) is called γραφή, graphe (SEG 36: 700, l. 2).


ii. Realty 1000 artabae granted by king Sauromates II to the temple of Poseidon and the thiasos (CIRB 1134, ll. 9-10).
iii. Income 1000 artabae granted by king Sauromates II to the temple of Poseidon and the thiasos (CIRB 1134, ll. 9-10).


i. Number More than 41. More or less completely preserved lists of names (with patronyms) of ordinary members appear in CIRB 1129 (at least 17), 1130 (at least 5), 1131 (at least 1), 1134 (at least 41), 1135 (at least 37), 1230 (at least 4); SEG 36: 700 (at least 7); SEG 36: 705 (at least 5).
ii. Gender Men
Note The preserved names are male names.
iii. Age Adults
iv. Status From the name of the association, the group gathered sea merchants.
Besides the thiasotic staff the lists reveal several civic or royal officials:
Three ὀρφανοφύλακες, orphanophylakes (civic rather than thiasotic office: CIRB 1129, fragment of the lower part, l. 4; 1130, l. 3; SEG 36: 705, l. 3).
One [ὁ ἐπὶ τῆς Θεοδ]οσίας [ho epi tes Theod]osias (meaning unclear: CIRB 1130, ll. 4-5).
Three στρατηγοί, strategoi (CIRB 1134, l. 15: two persons; SEG 36: 700, l. 6).
Three ἐνκυκλίων οἰκονόμοι, enkyklion oikonomoi (meaning unclear: CIRB 1134, ll. 17-19).
One [λο]χαγός, [lo]chagos (royal official: SEG 36: 700, l. 5). For this office in Gorgippia see CAPInv. 1309.


i. Assemblies Called σύνοδοι, synodoi: CIRB 1129, l. 2; 1135, l. 5. For σύνοδος, synodos designating the assembly of a θίασος, thiasos see Gauthier in BE 2001: no. 312 and Chaniotis in SEG 47: 1199 and 49: 1053.
iii. Worship On the basis of the dedication to Poseidon and the association's involvement in building activities of Poseidon's temple (CIRB 1129 and 1134), worship by the group may be supposed.
Deities worshipped Poseidon
iv. Honours/Other activities Building activity: erection of sacred statues (ἀγάλματα, agalmata) and restoration of the temple (ναός, naos) of Poseidon (CIRB 1134, ll. 7-8).


i. Local interaction Relations with the royal court and the city of Gorgippia (several city and royal officials as members).
Restoration of the temple of Poseidon.


i. Comments We consider that all these records belong to the same association of ναύκληροι, naukleroi worshipping Poseidon for the following reasons:
1) CIRB 1129 and 1134 are both dedications to Poseidon.
2) CIRB 1129 and SEG 36: 700 are prosopographically connected (same ἱερεύς, hiereus, and same συναγωγός, synagogos).
3) CIRB 1129, 1134, 1135 and SEG 36: 700 mention the same officials: collegial (?) ἱερεύς, hiereus and συναγωγός, synagogos (the alternative being a ἱερεύς, hiereus, at the head and a συναγωγός, synagogos, as “number two”), one (or two?) φροντισταί, phrontistai, and one ἱερῶν οἰκονόμος, hieron oikonomos (called ἐπὶ τῶν ἱερῶν, epi ton hieron, in CIRB 1129 and absent in CIRB 1135).
4) The ὀρφανοφύλακες, orphanophylakes are mentioned in CIRB 1129, 1130 and SEG 36: 705.
Therefore, we distinguish this association from another one (CAPInv. 1311), which has a συναγωγός, synagogos as leader.
ii. Poland concordance Poland B 120 K (CIRB 1230)
Poland B 120 L (CIRB 1129)
iii. Bibliography Boltunova, A.I. (1986), ‘Nadpisi Gorgippii iz nakhodok 1971-1981 gg. [Inscriptions from Gorgippia from the Finds of the Years 1971-1981]’, VDI 1: 49-50 no. 5 (SEG 36: 705).
Harland, P.A. (2014), Greco-Roman Associations: Texts, Translations, and Commentaries. II. North Coast of the Black Sea, Asia Minor. Berlin, Boston: 14-9 no. 93 (for CIRB 1134).
Jajlenko, V.P. (2010): Tysjacheletnij Bosporskij Rejkh [A Thousand Year Bosporan Reich (sic)]. Moscow: 609-18 and 630-32.
Saprykin, S.J. (1986), ‘Iz epigrafiki Gorgippii [From the Epigraphy of Gorgippia]’, VDI 1: 62-75 (SEG 36, 700).
Smirnova [Zavojkina], N.V. (2001), ‘Namestniki Gorgippii [The Governors of Gorgippia]’, Drevnosti Bospora 4: 350-67.
Ustinova, Y. (1999), The Supreme Gods of the Bosporan Kingdom. Celestial Aphrodite and the Most High God. Leiden, Boston, Cologne: 199.
Zavojkina, N.V. (2012), Bosporskie fiasy: mezhdu polisom i monarkhiej [Bosporan Thiasoi: Between Polis and Monarchy]. Moscow: 86-8, 90-1, 257-65.


i. Private association Certain
Note The terminology points to a private association.