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Last Updated on 08 Jan 2019

Author: Matt Gibbs & Philip F. Venticinque

CAPInv. 1411: synodos Sebaste Kaisaros Autokratoros theou hyiou Dios Eleuteriou


i. Geographical area Egypt
ii. Nome Alexandria (L00)
iii. Site Alexandria


i. Full name (original language) σύνοδος Σεβαστὴ Καίσαρος Αὐτοκράτος θεοῦ υἱοῦ Διὸς Ἐλευ[θ]ε̣ρίου (SB XXII 15460, ll. 4-6)
ii. Full name (transliterated) synodos Sebaste Kaisaros Autokratoros theou hyiou Dios Eleuteriou


i. Date(s) 6 / 5 BC


i. Name in other forms BGU IV 1137, ll. 2-3: σύνοδος Σεβαστὴ τοῦ θεοῦ Αὐτοκράτος Καίσαρος synodos Sebaste tou theou Autokratoros Kaisaros
ii. Name elements
Personal:Kaisar Autokrator theos
Theophoric:Kaisar Autokrator theos hyios Dios Eleuteriou
iii. Descriptive terms σύνοδος synodos
Note synodos: SB XXII 15460, ll. 4; BGU IV 1137, ll. 2, 8, 15, 16.


i. Source(s) SB XXII 15460 (21 Aug. 5 BC)
BGU IV 1137 (16 Nov. 6 BC)
Note Other editions of BGU IV 1137: Wilcken Chr. 112; AGRW 281
Online Resources SB XXII 15460 = TM 79042
BGU IV 1137 = TM 18581 = AGRW ID 648
i.a. Source type(s) Papyrological source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script SB XXII 15460: decision/decree of the association;
BGU IV 1137: decision of an association; protocol; settlement of debt; loan payment of the association. Both texts are in Greek.
i.c. Physical format(s) papyrus


ii. References to buildings/objects SB XXII 15460: οἶκος συνόδου oikos synodou (l.4 'The house of the synodοs'); στέφανος stephanos (l. 16-17)
BGU IV 1137: A Paratomοs (l.2: ἐν τῷ Παρατόμῳ en to Paratomo) in Alexandria (?). But cf. P.Cair.Zen. I 59048 = SB III 6722 for the use of the term as 'rugs'.


ii. Leadership SB XXII 15460: Iucundus, προστάτης prostates (l. 6; president).
BGU IV 1137: Primus, προστάτης prostates (l. 4)
iii. Members SB XXII 15460: oἱ ἀρχακολούθοι hoi archakolouthoi (l. 2)
BGU IV 1137: οἱ πλεῖστοι hoi pleistoi (l. 6); Syntrophos is referred to as συνοδίτης synodites (l. 9).
iv. Officials SB XXII 15460: Primus, συναγωγός synagogos (l. 4, 'convener');
BGU IV 1137: here, Primus was not only prostates but also συναγωγός synagogos (l. 3: 'convener'); Iucundus, ἰερεύς hiereus (l. 4: 'priest'); Alexandros, γυμνασίαρχος gymnasiarchos (l.5: gymnasiarch).


i. Treasury/Funds BGU IV 1137: Funds (κεφάλαια τῆς συνόδου kephalaia tes synodou) are attested, and a loan is made from it (l. 7-8 and l. 16). The loan was for 120 silver Ptolemaic drachmas (l.11, 14).
ii. Realty SB XXII 15460: οἶκος συνόδου oikos synodou (l. 4 'The house of the synodοs')


i. Number SB XXII 15460: At least three, plus "principal followers" (hoi archakolouthoi, l. 2);
BGU IV 1137: At least five plus 'a majority' of members.
ii. Gender Men
Note The recorded names are male names.
iv. Status SB XXII 15460: Unmentioned here, but the officials appear to be those in BGU IV 1137;
BGU IV 1137 : Primus, Καίσαρος Kaisaros (l. 4), 'slave of Caesar'; Iucundus, Καίσαρος Kaisaros (l. 5), 'slave of Caesar'; ...υισω (...uiso), Καίσαρος Kaisaros (l. 8), 'slave of Caesar'.
vi. Proper names and physical features SB XXII 15460: Primus; Iucundus;

BGU IV 1137 = WChr 112 (6 BC): Primus; Iucundus; Alexandros; ...uiso; Syntrophos


i. Assemblies SB XXII 15460: συναγωγή synagoge (l. 3-4).
In BGU IV 1137: συναγωγή synagoge (l.2). The meeting took place at the Paratomοs (l. 2) in Alexandria (?).
iv. Honours/Other activities SB XXII 15460: An unnamed person is granted the title πάμφιλος pamphilos, "loved by all" (l.15-16), and a "crown", στέφανος stephanos (l.16-17)


i. Comments This is an association apparently concerned with the imperial cult, which appears to have been quite different in Egypt (see Pfeiffer 2012). The cult appears to have been provincial in nature, but whether this was a private cult or not is difficult to say.
iii. Bibliography Capponi, L. (2011) "Priests in Augustan Egypt," in F. Santangelo and J. Richardson (eds.), Priests and State in the Roman World, Religions in the Graeco-Roman World, Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag, 505-26 (esp. 513-14)
Eitrem, S.(1935) (1935) "Varia, 75.," Symbolae Osloenses 14: 134-37
Harland, P (2003), Associations, Synagogues and Congregations: Claiming a Place in Ancient Mediterranean Society. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 304 (n. 4)
Herklotz, F. (2004) Prinzeps und Pharao: der Kult des Augustus in Ägypten. Berlin: Verlag-Antike, 303-4.
Pfeiffer, S. (2012) "The Imperial Cult in Egypt," in C. Riggs (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Roman Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 83-100.


i. Private association Possible
Note This is a 'possible' private association. It is not entirely clear whether the imperial cult in Egypt was private or a public affair. Here, the group may be private, although it seems best to err on the side of caution.