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Last Updated on 20 May 2019

Author: Benedikt Eckhardt

CAPInv. 1591: hoi gnapheis kai leukantai tes theou Artemidos


i. Geographical area Western Asia Minor
ii. Region Ionia
iii. Site Ephesos


i. Full name (original language) οἱ γναφεῖς καὶ λευκανταὶ τῆς θεοῦ Ἀρτέμιδος (SEG 34: 1124, ll. 7-9)
ii. Full name (transliterated) hoi gnapheis kai leukantai tes theou Artemidos


i. Date(s) 180 (?) - 200 (?) AD


ii. Name elements
Professional:gnapheis kai leukantai
Theophoric:tes Artemidos


i. Source(s) SEG 34: 1124 (180 (?) - 200 (?) AD)
Note See also:
Dittmann-Schöne II.1.7
Online Resources SEG 34: 1124
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Civic decree, Greek
i.c. Physical format(s) Marble column
ii. Source(s) provenance Found reused in the Western wall of Hanghaus 2.


iii. Worship The association has some part in a civic ritual that involves the adornment of the statue of Artemis by local children.
Deities worshipped Artemis


i. Local interaction The professional workers are said to be κουρατορεύοντες, kouratoreuontes (l. 7) (= curatores) and as such are mentioned in an absolute genitive alongside the prytanis, the priestess of Athena, and the grammateus.


i. Comments Most commentators think that τῆς θεοῦ Ἀρτέμιδος, tes theou Artemidos belongs to κουρατορευόντων, kouratoreuonton (e.g. Dittmann-Schöne 2010: 132; Kleijwegt 2002: 100). But it is more likely that it is part of the name, as assumed by Zimmermann (2002: 79). This (as well as the lack of a second article before λευκανταί, leukantai) would also mean that these were not two associations, but one (Zimmermann 2002: 142; but cf. 79-80, where she raises doubts about the qualification of these professional workers as associations). Apparently, the fullers and bleachers of Artemis belonged to the civic sanctuary; there are parallels at Ephesos for such integration of professional associations into civic religion. It is likely that they were regularly responsible for the kosmos of Artemis (Engelmann and Knibbe 1984: 142-3), but this was certainly not their only contribution.
iii. Bibliography Dittmann-Schöne, I. (2010), Die Berufsvereine in den Städten des kaiserzeitlichen Kleinasiens. 2nd. ed. Regensburg.
Engelmann, H., and D. Knibbe (1984), ‘Neue Inschriften aus Ephesos X’, JÖAI 55: 136-49.
Kleijwegt, M. (2002), ‘Textile Manufacturing for a Religious Market. Artemis and Diana as Tycoons of Industry’, in W. Jongman and M. Kleijwegt (eds.), After the Past. Essays in Ancient History in Honour of H.W. Pleket, Leiden, Boston: 81-134.
Zimmermann, C. (2002), Handwerkervereine im griechischen Osten des Imperium Romanum. Mainz.


i. Private association Probable
Note This was presumably a semi-public professional association.
ii. Historical authenticity Certain