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Last Updated on 21 Feb 2017

Author: Ilias Arnaoutoglou

CAPInv. 230: orgeones


i. Geographical area Attica with Salamis
ii. Region Attica
iii. Site Piraeus


i. Full name (original language) ὀργεῶνες (IG II2 1255, ll. 1, 7, 14; IG II2 1256, ll. 6-7; IG II2 1324, ll. 10, 13-14, 17-18, 23, 25; IG II2 1361, l. 11)
ii. Full name (transliterated) orgeones


i. Date(s) 337 - 190 (?) BC


ii. Name elements


i. Source(s) IG II2 1255 (337/6 BC)
IG II2 1256 (329/8 BC)
IG II2 1324 (c. 190 BC)
IG II2 1361 (c. 330-324 BC)
Note Inscriptions IG II2 1255 and 1256 are written stoichedon.
Ed. pr.
IG II2 1255: JÖAI 5 (1902) 132.
IG II2 1256: IG II (5) 573b.
IG II2 1324: BCH 23 (1899) 370.
IG II2 1361: Athenaion 1 (1872) 14 no. 14. (APMA 1, 101 no. 359)
Other editions
IG II2 1255: Schwenk 13. (SEG 35: 239); GRA I 2.
IG II2 1256: Syll3 1095; Michel no. 980; Schwenk 52 (SEG 35: 239); GRA I 5; AGRW 12.
IG II2 1324: Michel no. 1558; GRA I 32.
IG II2 1361: Foucart no. 2; Prott - Ziehen II 1, 41; Michel no. 979; LSCG 45 (SEG 25: 167); Le Guen I no. 6 (French tr.; SEG 42: 1803); GRA I 4; AGRW 11.
Cf. SEG 35: 73; SEG 46: 2363; SEG 50:22; SEG 53: 31, 2247; SEG 54: 59, 212, 225. ΒΕ 1942, no. 32; 1950, no. 94; 1987, no. 168.
Online Resources IG II2 1255 and AGRW ID 3456
IG II2 1256 and AGRW ID 3055
IG II2 1324 and AGRW ID 3929
IG II2 1361 and AGRW ID 3049
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script IG II2 1255: Greek honorary decree for the hieropoioi Antiphanes, Nausiphilos and Aristomenes.
IG II2 1256: Greek honorary decree for the epimeletai Euphyes and Dexios.
IG II2 1324: Greek honorary decree for the epimeletes Stephanos.
IG II2 1361: Set of regulations (νόμος, nomos) of the association, in Greek.
i.c. Physical format(s) IG II2 1255: Marble stele with a moulding, measuring 0,41x0,27m.
IG II2 1256: Marble stele with a relief on top depicting Bendis and a consort deity commending perhaps the honoured individuals, measuring 0,34x0,20-49m. See Meyer 1989: 296 no. A107; Guntner 1994: 77 no. G4. (SEG 47: 30); Lawton 1995: no. 47. (SEG 45: 231)
IG II2 1324: Marble stele broken on top measuring 0,84x0,28m.
IG II2 1361: Marble stele broken on top and bottom, measuring 0,24x0,39m.
ii. Source(s) provenance IG II2 1255: It was found in Peiraieus, now in Peiraieus Museum.
IG II2 1256: Found in Piraeus, acquired in 1894 by the Ny Carlsberg Glyptothek, now in Copenhagen, no. 1043a.
IG II2 1324: Found in Zanneion, Peiraieus, later in the house of Al. Meletopoulos.
IG II2 1361: Found in Piraeus, now in the Epigraphical Museum, EM 7755.


ii. References to buildings/objects A precinct (ἱερόν, hieron, IG II2 1255, l. 16; IG II2 1256, ll. 11-2; IG II2 1324, ll. 2, 27; IG II2 1361, ll. 9-10) of the goddess, with a house (οἰκία, oikia, IG II2 1361, ll. 9-10), is mentioned as well as a dedication (ἀνάθημα, anathema, IG II2 1324, ll. 26, 30) and stelai in IG II2 1361, ll. 22-3.


iii. Members The members of the group are called ὀργεῶνες, orgeones (IG II2 1324, l. 20; IG II2 1361, 3, 18, 21). Ferguson 1944: 99 argued that membership to the group was hereditary before the introduction of the apparently new rules in IG II2 1361, cf. Arnaoutoglou 2003: 96.
iv. Officials Sacred officials: Ἱεροποιοί, hieropoioi (IG II2 1255, ll. 2-3; IG II2 1361, 16-18); priest (ἱερεύς, hiereus, IG II2 1361, l. 7) and priestess (ἰέρεια, hiereia, IG II2 1361, ll. 4, 7).
Administrative officials: Stewards (ἐπιμεληταί, epimeletai, IG II2 1256, l. 3; IG II2 1324, l. 1; IG II2 1361, ll. 15-16); secretary (γραμματεύς, grammateus, IG II2 1255, l. 17; IG II2 1324, ll. 29-30); treasurer (ταμίας, tamias, IG II2 1324, l. 32).
Ferguson 1944: 102 maintained that hieropoioi were polis-appointees; cf. Arnaoutoglou 2003: 107.
vi. Laws and rules IG II2 1361 contains a set of regulations called law (νόμος, nomos, l. ) of the association. They concern the procedure of joining the group (ll. 20-23), selling the water of the sanctuary (ll. 8-12), performing sacrifices (ll. 3-8), convening assemblies (ll. 16-17), fines against officials violating the rules (ll. 13-14).
vii. Judicial system In IG ΙΙ2 1361, ll. 7-8, 13-14, 20 there are monetary fines against those who violate the rules prescribed. In l. 14 there is a provision for expulsion, καὶ μὴ μετέστω αὐτῶι τῶν κοινῶν, kai me metesto autoi ton koinon.
viii. Obligations In IG II2 1361, 21-22 there is a provision about the payment of an entrance fee to prospective members.
ix. Privileges In IG II2 1361, 3 exemption from payment of a fee (ἀτέλεια, ateleia) is provided to members for sacrificing.


ii. Realty There are several references to a precinct (ἱερόν, hieron, IG II2 1255, 16; IG II2 1256, 11-12; IG II2 1324, ll. 2-3, 27; IG II2 1361, 9-10) of the goddess, with a house (οἰκία, oikia, IG II2 1361, 9-10).
iii. Income The income to support the association's activities comes from the entrance fee (IG II2 1361, 21-22), the fines (IG II2 1361, ll. 13-14) and the sale of water (IG II2 1361, l. 9).


ii. Gender Men
Note The name attested are male names.
IG II2 1255: Ὀλυμπιόδωρος, Athenian Onomasticon s.v. (17). Θάλλος, Athenian Onomasticon s.v. (2). Ἀντιφάνης Ἀντισθένους Κυθήρριος, Athenian Onomasticon s.v. (58). Ναυσίφιλος Ναυσινίκου Κεφαλῆθεν, Athenian Onomasticon s.v. (1).
IG II2 1256: Φιλοκράτης, Athenian Onomasticon s.v. (22). Εὐφύης, Athenian Onomasticon s.v. (1). Δέξιος, Athenian Onomasticon s.v. (10).
IG II2 1324 Στέφανος, Athenian Onomasticon s.v. (103).
iii. Age Adults
iv. Status From the individuals named in the inscriptions two (or perhaps three) are certainly citizens.
The remaining are unidentified, as they are designated with a personal name only. Wilhelm 1905: 134 could not pronounce on the status of individuals of IG II2 1256.


i. Assemblies In IG II2 1361, l. 16 it is clearly ordained that monthly assemblies (ἀγορὰν καὶ ξύλλογον ποιεῖν, agoran kai syllogon poiein) should be held on the second day of each month in the sanctuary about the common affairs on the initiative of hieropoioi and stewards.
ii. Meetings and events In IG II2 1255, ll. 5-6 a procession (πομπή, pompe) and distribution of the meat (κρεανομία, kreanomia) are mentioned. A procession is also mentioned in IG II2 1324, l. 5.
iii. Worship In IG II2 1255, ll. 5-6 a procession (πομπή, pompe) and distribution of the meat (κρεανομία, kreanomia) are mentioned. A procession is also mentioned in IG II2 1324, l. 5. Sacrifices (θυσίαι, thysiai) are mentioned in IG II2 1361, ll. 2-6.
Deities worshipped The main deity honoured is Bendis (IG II2 1255, ll. 16-7; IG II2 1324, l. 15) sometimed referred to as simply the goddess (ἡ θεός, he theos, IG II2 1256, ll. 6, 12; IG II2 1324, l. 5) while Deloptes is mentioned only in IG II2 1324, l. 15.
iv. Honours/Other activities The association awards a golden crown (χρυσοῦς στέφανος, chrysous stephanos) to each official honoured in IG II2 1255, ll. 8-9 and IG II2 1256, l. 9. In contrast in IG II2 1324, l. 19 an olive leaves crown (θαλλοῦ στέφανος, thallou stephanos) and the place to erect a dedication (ἀνάθημα, anathema) is awarded.


i. Comments IG II2 1255: The decree passed when archon was Phrynichos.
IG II2 1256: The decree passed when archon was Kephisophon.
Wilhelm 1902, followed by Ferguson 1944: 98, has argued that this group of documents was issued by the citizen orgeones of Bendis; cf. Arnaoutoglou 2003: 59-60. Review of the discussion in GRA I 2.
ii. Poland concordance IG II2 1255: Poland A6E
IG II2 1256: Poland A3a
IG II2 1324: Poland A3b
IG II2 1361: Poland A2a
iii. Bibliography Arnaoutoglou, I. (2003), Thusias heneka kai sunousias. Private religious associations in Hellenistic Athens. Athens: 59-60, 98.
Behrend, D. (1970), Attische Pachturkunden. Ein Beitrag zur Beschreibung der μίσθωσις nach den griechischen Inschriften. München: 96 no. 37.
Ferguson, W. (1944), ‘The Attic orgeones’, HThR 37: 61-140.
Garland, R. (1987), The Piraeus. From the fifth to the first century B.C.. London: 232.
Güntner, G. (1994), Göttervereine und Götterversammlungen auf attischen Weihreliefs. Untersuchungen zur Typologie und Bedeutung. Würzburg.
Ismard, P. (2010), La cité des réseaux. Athènes et ses associations VIe – Ier siècle av. J.-C.. Paris: 263-72.
Jones, N. (1999) The associations of classical Athens. A response to democracy. New York: 254-62.
Lawton, C. (1995), Attic document reliefs. Art and politics in ancient Athens. Oxford.
Meyer, M. (1989), Die griechischen Urkundenreliefs. Berlin.
Mikalson, J. (1998), Religion in Hellenistic Athens. Los Angeles: 142, 145.
Papazarkadas, N. (2004-2009), ‘Attika epigraphika semeiomata’, Hόρος 17-21: 103-4.
Parker, R. (1996), Athenian religion. A history. Oxford: 170-4, 337-8.
Tracy, S. (1990), Attic letter-cutters of 229 to 86 B.C.. Berkeley: 110.
Tracy, S. (1995) Athenian democracy in transition. Attic letter cutters of 340-290 B.C.. Berkeley: 129.
Wilhelm, A. (1902), ‘Inschrift aus dem Peiraieus’, JOAI 5: 127-39.
Ziebarth, E. (1898), ‘Inschriften aus Athen’ MDAI(A) 23: 24-37.


i. Private association Certain
Note The association displays all the hallmarks of a private association: distinct name, membership, organization, property and durability.