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Last Updated on 22 Feb 2017

Author: Ilias Arnaoutoglou

CAPInv. 341: koinon (ton) Eikadeon


i. Geographical area Attica with Salamis
ii. Region Attica
iii. Site Athens


i. Full name (original language) κοινὸν (τῶν) Εἰκαδέων (IG II2 1258, l. 11; IG II2 2631, ll. 1-2; IG II2 2632, ll. 1-2)
ii. Full name (transliterated) koinon (ton) Eikadeon


i. Date(s) 342 - iii BC


ii. Name elements
Cultic:Eikadeis means 'those celebrating the twentieth day'.
Other:Eikadeis: number twenty; the name means 'those celebrating the twentieth day'.
iii. Descriptive terms κοινόν, koinon
Note koinon: IG II2 1258, l. 11; IG II2 2631, ll. 1-2; IG II2 2632, ll. 1-2


i. Source(s) Agora XIX P26, B iii b, ll. 384-5 (342/1-339/8 BC)
IG II2 1258 (324/3 BC)
IG II2 2631 (iv-iii BC)
IG II2 2632 (iv-iii BC)
Lambert 1997: 68 no. F13A, 12-16, c. (330-325 BC)
Note The text of IG II2 2631 is identical with that of IG II2 2632.
Ed. pr.
IG II2 1258: Ross 1846, iv-vi (ΑΡΜΑ 3, 143 no. 704). An.Ép. 1853: 850 (ΑΡΜΑ 5, 438 no. 2792).
IG II2 2631: Athenaion 4 (1875) 121 no. 11 (ΑΡΜΑ 1, 75 no. 381).
IG II2 2632: MDAI (A) 51 (1926) 24.
Lambert 1997, 68 no. F13A = IG II2 1596.
Other publications
IG II2 1258: Lueders no. 28; Michel no. 974; Schwenk 78 (SEG 35: 239); Ismard 2010, 433.
IG II2 2631: Michel no. 743; Ismard 2010, 434.

Cf. SEG 21: 571; SEG 40: 151ter; SEG 42: 130bis and 229; SEG 44: 251; SEG 46: 2363; SEG 48: 152; SEG 52: 131 and 253; SEG 56: 208; SEG 60: 197. BE 1999, no. 192; 2003, no. 55.
Online Resources IG II2 1258
IG II2 1596
IG II2 2631
IG II2 2632
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Agora XIX P.26, 384-5: Poletai records.
IG II2 1258: Honorary decree of the association for Polyxenos son of Diodoros for his initiative to prosecute for false witnessing (ἐπίσκηψις, episkepsis) some members of the group, in a property dispute. It was also decided to elect three members to help Polyxenos.
Lambert 1997: 68 no. F13A, 12-6: Reference to the association in the tabulae centesimarum.
IG II2 2631-2632: Horos of association's property.
All texts are written in Greek.
i.c. Physical format(s) IG II2 1258 is a pedimental marble stele.
IG II2 2631-2632: Marble stele measuring 1,36x0,34m.
ii. Source(s) provenance Agora XIX P26: 384-5 found in the Athenian Agora.
Lambert 1997, 68 no. F13A, 12-6 was found in Athens.
IG II2 2631 was found in Markopoulo (modern toponym), now in the Epigraphical Museum, EM 10084.
IG II2 2632 was found in Koropi (modern toponym).
IG II2 1258 was found in Markopoulo (modern toponym).


ii. References to buildings/objects In IG II2 1258, 23-5 there is a reference to a stele to be inscribed with the text of the decree and to be erected at the sanctuary of Apollon Parnessios.


iii. Members The members of the group are designated as Εἰκαδεῖς, Eikadeis, IG II2 1258, 3, 5-8, 20.
iv. Officials The officials of the association are designated as ἄρχοντες, archontes, IG II2 1258, l. 22.
In IG II2 1596, l. 12 a certain βούλ[αρχος], boul[archos] is restored.
v. Other staff The association is to elect a committee of three members to assist Polyxenos in the prosecution, IG II2 1258, ll. 12-5.
Known practice of appointment The appointment of these three members is described with the verb to elect (ἑλέσθαι, helesthai, IG II2 1258, l. 12).
vi. Laws and rules The members of the association probably had sworn an oath (ὅρκος, horkos, IG II2 1258, 2) about their conduct, IG II2 1258, ll. 1-3. Parker 1996: 336-7 argued that the curse following the oath was pronounced by Eikadeus, a (semi-)mythical founder-figure of the group. However, it is equally possible that the term describes an individual member of the group.


ii. Realty The association had landed property (χωρίον, chorion, IG II2 2631-32, ll.1) probably in modern Mesogaia and another piece of land (χωρίον, chorion, Lambert 1997: 68 F13A 14) in Salamis.


ii. Gender Men
Note The attested names of members are male names.
Lambert 1997, 68 F13A, 13: Ὀλυμπιόδωρος Εὐμήλου, Athenian Onomasticon s.v. (59)
IG II2 1258:
[Ἐ]παμείνων Ἀμεινίου, Athenian Onomasticon s.v. (3)
Πολύξενος Διοδώρου, Athenian Onomasticon s.v. (4)
iii. Age Adults


iii. Worship The association performed some sort of sacrifices, IG II2 1258, ll. 6-7.
Baslez 2004: 115 put forward the possibility that the group worshipped a hero-founder Eikadeus. The erection of the stele in the sanctuary of Ἀπόλλων Παρνήσσιος, Apollon Parnessios does not imply that the association worshipped this deity.
Deities worshipped hero-founder Eikadeus (?)
iv. Honours/Other activities Τhe association praises (ἐπαινέσαι, epainesai) Polyxenos, son of Diodoros and awards a golden crown (χρυσοῦς στέφανος, chrysous stephanos) to him for his righteoussness and the initiative to prosecute co-members, IG II2 1258, ll. 17-21.


i. Local interaction The association is utilizing the polis' judicial mechanism in order to protect its interests from some members who have given false testimony in a dispute about the association's property (Parker 1997: 337). Also it pays the 1% tax on sales/leases and erects boundary stones (ὅροι, horoi) to delimit its property.


i. Comments IG II2 1258 is dated in the archonship of Hegesias.
ii. Poland concordance IG II2 1258: Poland A62a
IG II2 2631: Poland A62b
IG II2 2632: Poland A62c(?)
Lambert 1997, 68 F13A, ll. 12-6: Poland A62c
iii. Bibliography Arnaoutoglou, I. (2003), Thusias heneka kai sunousias. Private religious associations in Hellenistic Athens. Athens: 138-9.
Baslez, M.-F. (2004), ‘Les notables entre eux. Recherches sur les associations d’Athènes à l’époque romaine’ in Follet, S. (ed.) L’Hellénisme d’époque romaine: Nouveaux documents, nouvelles approches (Ier s. a.C. – IIIe s.p.C.) (Actes du colloque international à la mémoire de Louis Robert, Paris, 7-8 juillet 2000). Paris: 105-20.
Baslez, M.-F. (2006) ‘Entraide et mutualisme dans les associations des cités grecques à l’époque hellénistique’ in Molin, M. (ed.) Les régulations sociales dans l’antiquité (Actes du colloque d’Angers 23 et 24 mai 2003). Rennes: 157-68.
Ismard, P. (2010), La cité des réseaux. Athènes et ses associations VIe – Ier siècle av. J.-C.. Paris.
Lambert, S. (1993), The phratries of Attica. Ann Arbor.
Lambert, S. (1997), Rationes centesimarum. Sales of public land in Lykourgan Athens. Amsterdam: 199-201.
Millett, P. (1991), Lending and borrowing in ancient Athens. Cambridge: 177.
Papazarkadas, N. (2011), Sacred and public land in ancient Athens. Oxford: 183-6.
Parker, R. (1996), Athenian religion. A history. Oxford.
Ross, L. (1846), Die Demen von Attika und ihre Vertheilung unter die Phylen nach Inschriften. Halle.
Rubinstein, L. (2000), Litigation and cooperation. Supporting speakers in the courts of classical Athens. Stuttgart: 88.
Taylor, M. (1997), Salamis and the Salaminioi. The history of an unofficial Athenian demos. Amsterdam: 181.


i. Private association Probable
Note The association’s corporate character is more than certain since it owns property, has a distinct name, officials and internal affairs to administer. But its private character is disputed by Lambert 1997: 199-201 (and earlier in Lambert 1993: 365) who argued that it may have been a genos-like group (Parker 1996: 337 agrees that this is a possibility).