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Last Updated on 22 Feb 2017

Author: Ilias Arnaoutoglou

CAPInv. 361: koinon ton orgeonon


i. Geographical area Attica with Salamis
ii. Region Attica
iii. Site Piraeus


i. Full name (original language) κοινὸν τῶν ὀργεώνων (IG II2 1314, l. 12; IG II2 1316, l. 18; IG II2 1327, l. 23; IG II2 1334, l. 14)
ii. Full name (transliterated) koinon ton orgeonon


i. Date(s) 272 - 70 (?) BC


ii. Name elements
iii. Descriptive terms κοινόν, koinon.
σύνοδος, synodos
Note koinon: IG II2 1314, l. 12; IG II2 1316, l. 18; IG II2 1327, l. 23; IG II2 1334, l. 14
synodos, IG II2 1329, l. 8.


i. Source(s) IG II2 1314 (213/2 BC)
IG II2 1315 (211/0 BC)
IG II2 1316 (272/1 BC)
IG II2 1327 (178/7 BC)
IG II2 1328A (183/2 BC)
IG II2 1328B (175/4 BC)
IG II2 1329 (175/4 BC)
IG II2 1334 (c. 70 BC)
Agora XVI 235 (212/1 BC)
Note Ed. pr.
IG II2 1314: An.Ép. 1862: 1 no. 1.
IG II2 1315: Koumanoudis, St. (1860), Hellenikai epigraphai. Athenai 4 no. 5. (APMA 3: 271 no. 109)
IG II2 1316: BCH 7 (1883) 69-75 no. 2. The inscription is written stoichedon.
IG II2 1327: Archaeologische Zeitung 13/82-83 (1855) cols 83-85 no. 1. (ΑΡΜΑ 5, 367 no. 2432)
IG II2 1328: An.Ép. 1862: 189 no. 198.
IG II2 1329: Athenaion 8 (1879) 294. (ΑΡΜΑ 1, 73 no. 366)
IG II2 1334: Koumanoudis, St. (1860), Epigraphai hellenikai anekdotai. Athenai, no. 6. (APMA 3, 272 no. 111)
Agora XVI 235: Hesperia 26 (1957) 209 no. 57. (= SEG 17: 36)

Other publications
IG II2 1314: Lueders no.17; Foucart no. 7; Michel no. 981; CCCA 2.261; GRA I 28.
IG II2 1315: Lueders no. 23; Foucart no. 8; Michel no. 982; CCCA 2.262; GRA I 29.
IG II2 1316: Michel no. 983; CCCA 2.259; GRA I 16.
IG II 2 1327: Lueders no. 16; Foucart no. 6; Michel no. 984; CCCA 2.264; GRA I 35; AGRW 20.
IG II2 1328: Athenaion 8 (1879) 294; Lueders no. 24; Foucart no. 4-5; Prott - Ziehen II, i 44; Michel no. 1559; LSCG 48. (SEG 25: 159); CCCA 2.263; GRA I 34; AGRW 19.
IG II2 1329: Prott - Ziehen II, i p. 127; Syll3 1102; Michel no. 985; LSCG 48; CCCA 2.265; GRA I 37.
IG II2 1334: Lueders no. 18; Foucart no. 9; CCCA 2.266; GRA I 45.

Cf. SEG 39: 195; SEG 44: 58; SEG 53: 163; SEG 55: 1975; SEG 56: 3; SEG 57: 29. BE 1938, no. 104; 1957, no. 175; 1995, no. 230.
Online Resources IG II2 1314 and AGRW ID 3914
IG II2 1315 and AGRW ID 3918
IG II2 1316 and AGRW ID 3686
IG II2 1327 and AGRW ID 3106
IG II2 1328 and AGRW ID 3102
IG II2 1329 and AGRW ID 3932
IG II2 1334 and AGRW ID 3952
Agora XVI 235
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script A series of Greek honorary decrees for priestesses (IG II2 1314; IG II2 1315; IG II2 1316; IG II2 1334; Agora XVI 235), a treasurer (IG II2 1327), a secretary (IG II2 1329), an assistant to the priestess (ζάκορος, zakoros, IG II2 1328B), and a regulation about the provisions for celebrations (IG II2 1328, ll. 1-20).
i.c. Physical format(s) IG II2 1314: Marble pedimental stele measuring 1,10x0,38-44m.
IG II2 1315: Marble pedimental stele measuring 0,85x0,29m.
IG II2 1316: Marble stele with incised crowns at the top and bottom.
IG II2 1327: Marble pedimental stele measuring 0,68x0,48m.
IG II2 1328: Marble stele with a crown incised on top measuring 1,06x0,64m.
IG II2 1329: Marble stele measuring 0,86x0,42m.
IG II2 1334: Marble stele measuring 0,18x0,14m.
Agora XVI 235: Fragment of a marble stele, measuring 0,27x0,245m.
ii. Source(s) provenance Some of the inscriptions were found during excavations of the French army occupying Piraeus in 1855; see Michon 1918.
IG II2 1314: Found in Piraeus, location Myloi, now in Piraeus Museum.
IG II2 1315: Found in Piraeus, now in the Epigraphical Museum, EM 7855.
IG II2 1316: Found in Piraeus, apud Alex. Meletopoulos.
IG II2 1327: Found in Zea, Piraeus, now in the Epigraphical Museum, EM 7854.
IG II2 1328: Found in Piraeus, now in the Epigraphical Museum, EM 10550.
IG II2 1329: Found in Piraeus, now in the Epigraphical Museum, EM 7842.
IG II2 1334: Found in Melos, now in the Epigraphical Museum, EM 7764.
Agora XVI 235: Found built on a wall east of a late Roman fortification, north of Akropolis, now in the Agora, I 4991.


ii. References to buildings/objects References to:
precinct (τέμενος, temenos, IG II2 1314, ll. 23-4).
Metroon (Μητρῶον, Metroon, IG II2 1327, l. 27).
sanctuary (ἱερόν, hieron, IG II2 1314, l. 11; IG II2 1315, l. 15; IG II2 1316, l. 9; IG II2 1328, l. 20; IG II2 1329, l. 9; IG II2 1334, l. 8).
stone slab (στήλη λιθίνη, stele lithine, IG II2 1314, l. 23; IG II2 1315, l. 27; IG II2 1316, l. 21; IG II2 1327, ll. 26, 29; IG II2 1328, ll. 20, 44).
portrait (εἰκών, eikon, IG II2 1314, l. 18; IG II2 1329, ll. 27-8; IG II2 1334, ll. 17-8).
framed portrait (εἰκὼν ἐν πίνακι, eikon en pinaki, IG II2 1327, ll. 24, 28).
bed (κλίνη, kline) (IG II2 1315, l. 9).
dedications (ἀναθήματα, anathemata, IG II2 1316, l. 11).
thrones (θρόνοι, thronoi, IG II2 1328, l. 10).
silver decorations (κόσμος ἀργυροῦς, kosmos argyrous, IG II2 1328, l. 11).


iii. Members Members of the group are called ὀργεῶνες, orgeones, IG II2 1314, ll. 9, 13, 22; IG II2 1315, ll. 16, 19, 26, 29; IG II2 1316, ll. 9-10, 14, 19; IG II2 1327, ll. 6, 17, 20; IG II2 1328, ll. 8, 22, 28, 30, 33, 37, 39, 44; IG II2 1329, ll. 4, 7-8, 14, 19, 22, 25; IG II2 1334, ll. 11, 17; Agora XVI 235, l. 9.
In IG II2 1316 the members of the group in the incised crowns on the stele are called θιασῶται, thiasotai. A lot of ink has been spilled in order to explain this occurence, for a summary see GRA I 16. The scenario of a scribe’s confusion may be the most likely (cf. Ferguson 1994: 110-1), since it is established that a sanctuary could have been used by more than one associations and according to the fresh dating of the documents, thiasotai association did not precede the orgeones one.
iv. Officials Secretary (γραμματεύς, grammateus, IG II2 1328, l. 44; IG II2 1329, l. 5).
Treasurer (ταμίας, tamias, IG II2 1316, ll. 22-3; IG II2 1327, l. 4; IG II2 1329, l. 17).
Steward (ἐπιμελητής, epimeletes, IG II2 1314, l. 21; IG II2 1316, l. 23; three in IG II2 1327, ll. 31-3).
Priestess (ἱέρεια, hiereia, IG II2 1314, ll. 3-4, 11, 14, 26; IG II2 1315, ll. 5, 29, 31; IG II2 1316, ll. 7, 15; IG II2 1328, ll. 6, 8, 17, 19, 23, 28-9, 33-4, 41; IG II2 1334, l. 4, 13, 15).
Known practice of appointment Priestesses are alloted, λαχοῦσα, lachousa (IG II2 1314, ll. 4, 10; IG II2 1315, l. 5; IG II2 1334, l. 4, 6).
v. Other staff Temple warden (ζάκορος, zakoros, IG II2 1328, ll. 16-7, 31, 35, 39).
Cup-bearers (φιαληφόροι, phialephoroi, IG II2 1328, l. 10).
Known practice of appointment The temple warden in IG II2 1328, 21-44 is appointed exceptionally for life by decision of the association. The regular procedure of appointment rested on a decision of the serving priestess to select one of the priestesses who has served previously; it is described in ll. 17-9: καθιστάτω δὲ ἡ ἀεὶ λανχάνουσα ἱέρε[ια ζάκο]|ρον ἐκ τῶν ἱερειῶν [τ]ῶν γεγενε<ι>ῶν π[ρ]ότερον, δ[ὶ]ς δὲ τὴν αὐ̣τ̣ὴ̣ν̣ [μὴ ἐξεῖ]|ναι καταστῆσαι ἕως ἂν ἅπασαι διέλθωσιν, kathistato de he aei lanchanousa hiere[ia zako]ron ek ton hiereion [t]on gegeneion p[r]oteron, d[i]s de ten auten [me exei]nai katastesai heos an hapasai dielthosin.
vi. Laws and rules The association prescribes what the priestess (ἱέρεια, hiereia) has to provide and how the bowl-bearers (φιαληφόροι, phialephoroi) should be embelished, IG II2 1328, ll. 8-11: τὴν λαχοῦσαν ἱέρειαν εἰς [τὸν] μετὰ [Ἑρ]|μογένην ἄρχοντα ἐνιαυτόν, κατὰ ταὐτὰ δὲ καὶ τὰς λοιπὰς [σ]τ[ρω]ννύειν | θρόνους δύο [ὡς] καλλίστους, περιτιθέναι δὲ ταῖς φιαληφόροις καὶ τ[α]ῖ[ς πε]|ρὶ τὴν θεὸν οὔσαις ἐν τῶι ἀγερμ[ῶ]ι κόσμον ἀρ[γυροῦ]ν, ten lachousan hiereian eis [ton] meta [Her]mogenen archonta eniauton, kata tauta de kai tas loipas [s]t[ro]nnyein thronous duo [hos] kallistous, peritithenai de tais phialephorois kai t[a]i[s pe]ri ten theon ousais en toi agerm[o]i kosmon ar[gyrou]n.
Rule about the appointment and iteration in the function of zakoros, IG II2 1328, ll. 17-9: καθιστάτω δὲ ἡ ἀεὶ λανχάνουσα ἱέρε[ια ζάκο]|ρον ἐκ τῶν ἱερειῶν [τ]ῶν γεγενε<ι>ῶν π[ρ]ότερον, δ[ὶ]ς δὲ τὴν αὐ̣τ̣ὴ̣ν̣ [μὴ ἐξεῖ]|ναι καταστῆσαι ἕως ἂν ἅπασαι διέλθωσιν, kathistato de he aei lanchanousa hiere[ia zako]ron ek ton hiereion [t]on gegene<i>on p[r]oteron, d[i]s de ten auten [me exei]nai katastesai heos an hapasai dielthosin.
vii. Judicial system In case of violation of the above provision, the priestess (ἱέρεια, hiereia) will be liable to pay a fine of 50 drachmas, she shall be deprived of the praise, and she shall be removed, IG II2 1328, ll. 11-6: [ἐὰ]ν [δ]ὲ παρὰ ταῦ|τα ποιεῖ, κύριοι ἔ[σ]τωσαν οἱ ὀργεῶνες ζημιοῦντε[ς τὴ]ν [π]α[ρ]αβαίνουσά[ν] | τι τῶν γεγραμμένων μέχρι δραχμῶν π[εν]τήκον[τα κα]ὶ εἰσπραττ[όν]|των τρόπωι ὅτωι ἂν [δύνωνται· μ]ὴ ἐξεῖναι δὲ μηθενὶ μηδ’ ἐπιψηφίσαι | τὸν εἰθισμένον ἔπαινον αὐταῖς· κύριοι δ’ ἔστωσαν καὶ τὸ φύλλον τ̣ά̣[ξ]α[ι] | ὑπὲρ τῆς ἀπειθούσης, [ea]n [d]e para tauta poiei, kyrioi e[s]tosan oi orgeones zemiounte[s te]n [p]a[r]abainousa[n] ti ton gegrammenon mechri drachmon p[en]tekon[ta ka]i eispratt[on]ton tropoi hotoi an [dynontai; m]e exeinai de metheni med' epipsephisai ton eithismenon epainon autais; kyrioi d' estosan kai to phyllon ta[x]a[i] hyper tes apeithouses.
Also if anyone violates the rule about iteration in the function of zakoros, they are going to be liable to the same fine, IG II2 1328, ll. 18-9: εἰ δ[ὲ μή], ἔν[οχ]ος ἔ[στω] | ἡ ἱέρεια τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἐπιτιμίοις, ei d[e me], en[och]os e[sto] he hiereia tois autois epitimiois.


i. Treasury/Funds The association had a treasury designated as κοινόν, koinon, IG II2 1327, l. 29; IG II2 1316, ll. 23-4).
The association set up a fund called ἔρανος, eranos on the initiative of Hermaios son of Hermogenes of Paionidai, IG II2 1327, ll. 13-5: καὶ τοῦ ἐρά|νου τοῦ ἀργυρηροῦ ἀρχηγὸς γενόμενος συναχθῆ|ναι, kai tou eranou tou argyrerou archegos genomenos synachthenai.
ii. Realty The association perhaps owned a sanctuary which is designated variously as Μητρῶον (Metroon, IG II2 1327, 2l. 7), temple (ναός, naos, IG II2 1327, l. 25; IG II2 1329, l. 28; IG II2 1334, l. 18; IG II2 1315, l. 28; IG II2 1314, l. 18), ἱερόν (hieron, IG II2 1329, ll. 9, 30; IG II2 1334, l. 8; IG II2 1316, ll. 9, 21; IG II2 1315, l. 15; IG II2 1328, l. 20), precinct (τέμενος, temenos, IG II2 1314, ll. 23-4). Ferguson 1944: 113 claimed that the precinct was enclosed by a wall.
iii. Income The mentioned income of the group derived mainly form the fines imposed on recalcitrant officials, see above section on judicial system.
In IG II2 1316, ll. 12-3 the honoured priestess and her husband are reported to have handed down the income accrued during their term of office: ἀπέδωκα̣ν [δ]ὲ κα[ὶ τ]ὴν π[ρόσοδο]ν [τὴ|ν γ]ε[ν]ομένην ἐφ’ αὑτῶν [δικ]αίως, apedokan [d]e ka[i t]en p[rosodo]n [ten g]e[n]omenen eph' auton [dik]aios.
Although not strictly an income, individuals like the one honoured in IG II2 1329 contributed to the financial health of the association by proposing to cut unecessary expenses (ll. 10-13: εἰσήνενκεν δὲ καὶ | ψηφίσματα ἐπὶ τῶι συνφέροντι ἵνα συνσταλῶ|σιν αἱ λίαν ἄκαιροι δαπάναι, eisenenken de kai psephismata epi toi synpheronti hina synstalosin hai lian akairoi dapanai) and lend money in advance to the group (ll. 16-7: προευχρήστηκεν δὲ καὶ διάφορον | πλεονάκις ἄτοκον ἀποδημοῦντος τοῦ ταμίου, proeuchresteken de kai diaphoron pleonakis atokon apodemountos tou tamiou).


i. Number Around twenty members (?) are mentioned.
ii. Gender Men
Note Men: 13
Women: 7
Ferguson 1944: 109 n.53 thinks that the allotment of women as priestesses did not make them members. Robert 1936: 207 identifies hiereia Glaukon of IG II2 1316 with the priestess in IG II2 4687a.
iii. Age Adults
iv. Status Citizen: 10
Unidentified: 10


i. Assemblies The association hold regular meetings, perhaps monthly on Mounychion (April/May), designated as main assembly (ἀγορᾶι κυρίαι, agorai kyriai), IG II2 1314, ll. 1-2; IG II2 1315, l. 3; IG II2 1327, l. 2; IG II2 1328, ll. 4, 21; IG II2 1329, l. 1-2; IG II2 1334, ll. 1-2.
Only in IG II2 1316, l. 5 the assembly was held on Hekatombaion (July/August).
iii. Worship Members and officials of the association were organizing and participating in a variety of rituals, such as sacrifices (θυσίαι, thysiai, Agora XVI 235, l. 5; IG II2 1327, ll. 8, 25; IG II2 1334, ll. 9-10, 19; IG II2 1315, ll. 6-9, 24; IG II2 1314, l. 20), the spreading of a couch of the gods (στρῶσις (τῆς κλίνης τῶν θεῶν), strosis (tes lines ton theon): Agora XVI 235, 7-8; IG II2 1315, ll. 9-10), collection of money (ἀγερμοί, agermoi, IG II2 1329, l. 15).
For the sacrifices at the beginning of the new year (εἰσιτητήρια, eisiteteria, IG II2 1315, l. 7) see Ferguson 1944: 113.
The worshipped deity is referred to without exception as the goddess (ἡ θεός, he theos), IG II2 1328, ll. 11, 27, 33, 35-37, 39, 42; IG II2 1314, ll. 7, 12, 16, 24; IG II 2 1316, ll. 17-18; IG II2 1334, ll. 9, 14, 16) or the goddesses (θεαί, theai, IG II2 1315, ll. 14, 18, 22; IG II2 1329, l. 25) or the gods (θεοί, theoi, IG II2 1327, ll. 5, 8, 19). It is meant the Mother of the Gods and her consort deities.
Reference to a festival of Attis in IG II2 1315, l. 10.
Deities worshipped ἡ θεός, he theos: Mother of the Gods and her consort deities
iv. Honours/Other activities The association honoured the serving magistrates with a praise (ἐπαινέσαι, epainesai, IG II2 1314, l. 14; IG II2 1315, l. 20; IG II2 1316, l. 14; IG II2 1327, l. 17; IG II2 1329, ll. 22-3; IG II2 1334, l. 14), a crown (στέφανος, stephanos, IG II2 1327, l. 18), sometimes an olive-leaves crown (θαλλοῦ στέφανος, thallou stephanos, IG II2 1329, l. 24; IG II2 1334, ll. 15-6; IG II2 1315, l. 21; IG II2 1314, l. 15) or a golden crown (χρυσοῦς στέφανος, chrysous stephanos, IG II2 1316, l. 16), proclamation of the crown (ἀναγόρευσις, anagoreusis, IG II2 1329, l. 26; IG II2 1315, ll. 24-5; IG II2 1314, ll. 20-1), dedication of an engraved portrait at the expenses of the group (IG II2 1327, l. 24; IG II2 1329, ll. 27-8; IG II2 1334, 17-8; IG II2 1314, l. 18).
The honoured individual in IG II2 1327 has provided funds for the burial of destitute members, ll. 10-2: καί τισιν τῶν ἀπογεγονότων οὐχ ὑπάρχοντος| ἀργυρίου τῶι κοινῶι προιέμενος εἰς τὴν ταφὴν τοῦ | εὐσχημονεῖν αὐτοὺς καὶ τετελευτηκότας, kai tisin ton apogegonoton ouch hyparchontos argyriou toi koinoi proiemenos eis ten taphen tou euschemonein autous kai teteleutekotas.
The priestesses were honoured because of their piety (εὐσέβεια, eusebeia) and zeal (φιλοτιμία, philotimia), IG II2 1314, ll. 15-7; IG II2 1315, ll. 21-2 with the exception of IG II2 1316, 16-7: ἀρετῆς ἕνεκεν καὶ δικαιοσύνης, aretes heneken kai dikaiosynes. The treasurer in IG II2 1327, ll. 18-9 and the secretary in IG II2 1329, ll. 24-5 were honoured because of their virtue (ἀρετή, arete) and piety (εὐσέβεια, eusebeia).


i. Local interaction Ambiguous phrase denoting perhaps the participation of the lower strata of the Athenian population to association's contributions, IG II2 1329, ll. 12-4: ἐφρόντισεν δὲ τοῦ καὶ τοὺς δημοτικοὺς μετέχειν τῶν δεδομένων ὑπὸ τῶν ὀργεώνων φιλανθρώπων, ephrontisen de tou kai tous demotikous metechein ton dedomenon hypo ton orgeonon philanthropon, Ferguson 1944: 113.
Note that one of the members, Simon, son of Simon of Poros (IG II2 1327, l. 32) is attested as member in the orgeones Dionysiastai (CAPInv. 235).


i. Comments The above mentioned decrees were issued in the following archonships:
IG II2 1314: Herakleitos.
IG II2 1315: Aischron.
IG II2 1316: Lysitheides.
IG II2 1327: Philon.
IG II2 1328A: Hermogenes
IG II2 1328B: Sonikos.
IG II2 1329: Sonikos.
IG II2 1334: [Z]enion.
It is tempting (but precarious) to associate the dedication IG II2 2950/1 from second-century Piraeus, by Nikias, the treasurer, to the Mother of the Gods with this group.
ii. Poland concordance IG II2 1314: Poland A2b
IG II2 1315: Poland A2e
IG II2 1316: Poland A2c
IG II2 1327: Poland A2d
IG II2 1328: Poland A2g-h
IG II2 1329: Poland A2i
IG II2 1334: Poland A2f
iii. Bibliography Arnaoutoglou, I. (2003), Thusias heneka kai sunousias. Private religious associations in Hellenistic Athens. Athens: 109-11, 116-7, 149.
Baslez, M-F. (2001), ‘Entre traditions nationales et intégration: les associations sémitiques du monde grec’, in S. Ribichini, M. Rocchi, and P. Xella (eds.), La questione delle influenze vicino-orientali sulla religione greca. Stato degli studi e prospettive della ricerca (Atti del Colloquio Internazionale Roma, 20-22 maggio 1999), Roma: 235-47.
Baslez, M.-F. (2006), ‘Entraide et mutualisme dans les associations des cités grecques à l’époque hellénistique’ in M. Molin (ed.), Les régulations sociales dans l’antiquité (Actes du colloque d’Angers 23 et 24 mai 2003). Rennes: 157-70.
Ferguson, W. (1944), ‘The Attic orgeones’, HThR 37: 61-140 esp. 107-15, 137-40.
Ismard, P. (2010), La cité des réseaux. Athènes et ses associations VIe – Ier siècle av. J.-C.. Paris: 286-7, 347-57.
Jones, N. (1999), The associations of classical Athens. A response to democracy. New York: 262-7.
Michon, E. (1918), ‘Buste de Mélitiné, prêtresse du Métroon du Pirée (musée du Louvre)’ Memoires de la Societe Nationale des Antiquaires 75: 93-129.
Mikalson, J. (1998), Religion in Hellenistic Athens. Los Angeles: 142-3, 148, 202-4, 277-8.
Pakkanen, P. (1996), Interpreting early Hellenistic religion. A study based on the mystery cult of Demeter and the cult of Isis. Helsinki.
Parker, R. (1996), Athenian religion. A history. Oxford: 192-3.
Robert, L. (1936), ‘Etudes epigraphiques’, BCH 60: 190-207.
Roller, L. (1999), In search of God the Mother. The cult of Anatolian Cybele. Berkeley: 219-24.
Tracy, S. (1990), Attic letter-cutters of 229 to 86 B.C.. Berkeley: 77, 126.
Tracy, S. (2011), ‘Line 6 of IG ii2 1334 revisited’, ZPE 179: 139-40.
Verdejo Manchado, J. and Antela-Bernardez, B. (2011), ‘IG II2 1334: A crown for Onaso and the archon Athenion’, ZPE 177: 91-96.
Wilhelm, A. (1897), ‘Zu griechischen Inschriften’, AEMO 20: 90.
Wilhelm, A. (1902), ‘Inschrift aus dem Peiraieus’, JÖAI 5: 132.


i. Private association Certain
Note The association displays all the hallmarks of a private association: distinct name, membership, organization, property and durability.