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Last Updated on 08 Jul 2019

Author: Maria Paz de Hoz

CAPInv. 377: hoi bapheis


i. Geographical area Western Asia Minor
ii. Region Lydia
iii. Site Thyateira


i. Full name (original language) οἱ βαφεῖς (TAM V.2 935, l. 24; TAM V.2 945, ll. 2, 7; TAM V.2 965, l. 1; TAM V.2 972, l. 1; TAM V.2 989, ll. 15-16; TAM V.2 991, ll. 2, 6)
ii. Full name (transliterated) hoi bapheis


i. Date(s) i - iii AD


i. Name in other forms τὸ πλῆθος τῶν βαφέων, to plethos ton bapheon (TAM V.2 1029, ll. 3-4; TAM V.2 1081, ll. 5)
ii. Name elements
Professional:The dyers


i. Source(s) TAM V.2 935 (end 2nd - first quarter of the 3d C. AD)
TAM V.2 945 (1. half of the 3d C. AD)
TAM V.2 965 (ca. 160-170 AD)
TAM V.2 972 (ca. 50 AD)
TAM V.2 978 (a. 114 AD)
TAM V.2 989 (I-II AD)
TAM V.2 991 (II-III AD)
TAM V.2 1029 (II-III AD)
TAM V.2 1081 (?)
Note See also:
TAM V.2 935:
Dittmann-Schöne III.1.3
TAM V.2 945:
Dittmann-Schöne III.1.4
TAM V.2 965:
Dittmann-Schöne III.1.5
TAM V.2 972:
Dittmann-Schöne III.1.6
TAM V.2 978:
Dittmann-Schöne III.1.7
TAM V.2 989:
Dittmann-Schöne III.1.8
TAM V.2 991:
Dittmann-Schöne III.1.9
TAM V.2 1029:
Dittmann-Schöne III.1.10
TAM V.2 1081:
Dittmann-Schöne III.1.11

TAM V.2 1029, 1081(?): to plethos ton bapheon
all others: hoi bapheis
Online Resources TAM V.2 935
TAM V.2 945
TAM V.2 965
TAM V.2 972
TAM V.2 978
TAM V.2 989
TAM V.2 991
TAM V.2 1029
TAM V.2 1081
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script All evidences are honorific inscriptions except TAM V.2 1081, which is a funerary inscription. Greek.
i.c. Physical format(s) All evidences are statue bases except TAM V.2 1081, which is the front part of a sarcophague.
ii. Source(s) provenance All inscriptions come from the city of Thyateira except TAM V.2 991 (from the village of Meder, near the Lykos river); 1029 (from the village of Ballica).


ii. References to buildings/objects The house of the dyers (τὸ τῶν βαφέων ἔργον, to ton bapheon ergon) is attested in TAM V.2 945, ll. 6-7 and TAM V.2 991, l. 6. For the meaning of ἔργον, ergon as building cf. Robert 1974: 254, no. 1265; Robert 1977: 124, n. 187. For persons honoured by private associations for having erected ἔργα (erga) cf. van Nijf 1997: 91, n. 90.


iv. Officials The persons honoured in TAM V.2 945 and TAM V.2 991 are in care of the house of the association (epistesamenos in TAM V.2 945, ll. 5-6; epimeletheis in TAM V.2 991, ll. 5-6): the first one continues a function that has been in his family for five generations, the second one acts also in representation of his children. Dittmann-Schöne considers that these are evidences of patrons of the association who, in view of the hereditary nature of the charge, were surely members (com. to Dittmann-Schöne III.1.4 = TAM V.2 945). For the charge and the use of both verbs attested in Thyateira, with discussion of TAM V.2 945, cf. van Nijf 1997: 104-7. He thinks that the expressions means that these patrons or euergetai have organised the construction or embellishment of the dyers clubhouse (van Nijf 1997: 106), what does not necessarily mean that they were involved in trade under the cover of a patronage relationship (van Nijf 1997: 104).
There is in fact no sure reason to believe that these persons were members of the association, though they could well be patrons or euergetai.
v. Other staff TAM V.2 978: four persons (probably members) are in charge of erecting the statue.
TAM V.2 989: one person (probably member) is in charge of erecting the statue.

Not members of the association:
TAM V.2 1029 is evidence of an euergetes of the association, though probably all other persons honoured by the other inscriptions were also euergetai. Cf. TAM V.2 945, 991 and the comment under "officials".
vi. Laws and rules TAM V.2 1081 could be evidence for the association establishing funerary rules, since it is, together with the city, recipient of the fine in case of transgression.
viii. Obligations In TAM V.2 1081, the association (if the restitution of the name is right) receives, together with the city, the fine for infringement related to the tomb. That means that the association has probably the obligation of surveilling it, as is well known of many other professional associations. On funerary activities of professional associations cf. van Nijf 1997: 38-69.


i. Treasury/Funds In TAM V.2 972 and TAM V.2 989 it is stated that the statue is erected by the association with its own funds: ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων (ek ton idion, TAM V.2 972, l. 2; TAM V.2 989, l. 16).
iii. Income One of the incomes of the association is the reception of the money established as fine for funerary infringements. Cf. TAM V.2 1081 (probably in relation to graves of the association members or even of other persons who had asked the association to be surveillor of the grave).


iii. Worship In TAM V.2 935 the association honours a priest of the god Tyrimnos, who is the main official god of Thyateira. In view of the narrow relation of the association to the city, it is probable that it worshipped this god.
Deities worshipped Helios Apollo Tyrimnos (?)
iv. Honours/Other activities All evidences of the association (except TAM V.2 1081) are evidences of honours awarded by it to persons holding important charges in the city and also abroad.
TAM V.2 935: T. Ant. Kl. Alphenos Arignotos (cf. PIR I, 821), procurator, praefectus, neokoros from Kyzikos, Seleukeia Pieria and other cities, and holder of many other charges, related to consuls and archiereis, and priest of the god Tyrimnos.
TAM V.2 945:Aurelios Artemagoros, strategos, lampadarches of the Great Isopythia Augusteia, decemprimus, and surveillor of the associations building.
TAM V.2 965: M. Ioulios Dionysios Akylianos, twice stephanephoros. He has been philodoxos (eager of fame) since his childhood. (For the stemma of the family see TAM V.2 969).
TAM V.2 972: Klaudia Ammion, wife of a gymnasiarchos, priestess of the imperial cult, archiereia of the city for life, brilliant and generous agonothetis. She stands out for her piety (hagneia) and good sense (sophrosyne). For evidences of her parents cf. TAM V.2 934, 972 and 975.

TAM V.2 978: T. Klaudios Sokrates, archiereus of Asia in the temple of Pergamon, agonothetes of the city, gymnasiarchos. He has adorned the city with buildings and let it free of many spendings. For the honoured cf. Robert 1948: 81; TAM V.2 976.
TAM V.2 989: [---] son of Makedon, agoranomos, eirenarchos, strategos and other charges of the city. He has performed all of them with love for his fatherland, eagerness of glory, best manners, piety and excellence.
TAM V.2 991: Markos Menandrou, philotimos, leitourgos, surveillor of the associations house and holder of many charges in the city. He has been in many occasions useful to his fatherland.
TAM V.2 1029: a lover of his fatherland and an euergetes of the association.


i. Local interaction The honorific inscriptions erected by the association reveal a narrow interaction with the most important charges of the city. TAM V.2 935 honours a priest of the main god of the city. TAM V.2 1081 is evidence for the association as recipient, together with the city, of the funerary fine. TAM V.2 989 is a decree erected by the boule and demos (TAM V.2 989, l. 2) (if the restitution is correct).
ii. Interaction abroad Many of the honoured persons have important charges abroad. There is nevertheless no indication that
the association itself had any sort of interaction abroad, though due to the importance of textiles
workmanship in Thyateira and of the association's relation to the city it is most probable that it had
interaction with other cities or textile-associations abroad.


iii. Bibliography Dittmann-Schöne, I. (2010), Die Berufsvereine in den Städten des kaiserzeitlichen Kleinasiens. 2nd. ed. Regensburg: 182-8.
Labarre, G., and Le Dinahet, M.-T. (1996), ‘Les métiers du textile en Asie Mineure de lépoque hellénistique à l'époque impériale’, in Aspects de l'artisanat du textile dans le monde méditerranéen, Lyon: 49-118, esp. 63, n. 75.
van Nijf, O. (1997), The civic world of professional associations in the Roman East. Amsterdam: 88, 91, n. 90 and 104-7.
Robert, L. (1948), Hellenica, Recueil d'épigraphie, de numismatique et d'antiquités grecques. Vol. 6. Paris: 81.
Robert, L. (1974), Opera Minora Selecta. Vol. 4. Amsterdam: 254, no. 1265.
Robert, L. (1977), ‘Documents d’Asie Mineure’, BCH 101.1: 43-132, esp. 124, n. 187.


i. Private association Certain
Note It is a workmanship's association.