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Last Updated on 13 Jun 2019

Author: Stella Skaltsa

CAPInv. 425: hoi ek tes synodou


i. Geographical area Aegean Islands
ii. Region Euboea
iii. Site Eretria


i. Full name (original language) οἱ ἐκ τῆς συνόδου (IG XII.9 239, ll. 3, 6, 10, 19, 24-25)
ii. Full name (transliterated) hoi ek tes synodou


i. Date(s) ii BC


ii. Name elements
Other:hoi ek tes synodou
iii. Descriptive terms σύνοδος, synodos
Note synodos (IG XII.9 239, ll. 9, 22, 24)


i. Source(s) IG XII.9 239 + IG XII Suppl., p. 157 (ii. BC, based on letter forms)
Online Resources IG XII.9 239 + IG XII Suppl., p. 157
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Two honorific decrees by those from the synodos in Greek.
i.c. Physical format(s) Stele broken on top and on the right. Four crowns between lines 18 and 19 (i.e. separating the first from the second decree).
ii. Source(s) provenance Found in a house near the gymnasium in Eretria.


i. Archaeological remains The first decree prescribes that the stele is to be set up in the most conspicuous place in the gymnasium. Given that the stele was found in a house near the gymnasium, it it reasonable to assume that the gymnasium of the inscription is to be identified with the gymnasium that has come to light northeast of the theatre and was excavated by the American and the Swiss Archaeological Schools.
ii. References to buildings/objects ἐν τῶι ἐπιφαν[εστάτωι τοῦ γυ]μνασίου τόπωι, en toi epifan[estatoi tou gy]mnasiou topoi (ll. 12-13)

χρυσὸν στέφανον, gold crowns (ll. 8, 22-23)

στήλη λίθινη, stele lithine (l. 12)

ἔλαιον, elaion (l. 2)


iii. Members οἱ λοιποὶ ἐκ τῆς συνόδου, hoi loipoi ek tes synodou (l. 3)
iv. Officials ταμίας, tamias (l. 14)
v. Other staff ἐπιστάται, epistatai (ll. 14-15): five epistatai were elected to oversee the setting up of the stele and the recording of the decrees (ll. 15-16).
Those elected were:
Machinos son of Demokritos
Biottos son of Adamas
Noumenios son of Nika[nor]
[...]mos son of Hegesias
Sarapion son of Akestios
Known practice of appointment ἑ[λέσθαι] , he[lesthai] (l. 14): by vote
εἱρεθησα[ν], heirethesa[n] (l. 16)
Known voting practice see above
vi. Laws and rules The assembly is called ἔννομος ἀγορά, ennomos agora (ll. 6, 18)


i. Treasury/Funds The association has a tamias and sufficient funds to pay for the expenditure (analoma) of setting up the stele (ll. 13-14).


i. Assemblies ἐν ἐννόμωι ἀγορᾶι, en ennomoi agorai (ll. 6, 19)
Both decrees were issued with more than half members present (παροῦσιν ὑπὲρ ἡμίσεις, ll. 6, 19-20)
iv. Honours/Other activities Those from the synodos bestow various honours upon 5 individuals (the first decree was issued for one honorand, while the second decree for four honorands).
- the honorands are praised (ἐπαινέσαι, ll. 6-7, 20)
- gold crowns are granted to every single honorand (στεφανῶσαι ἕκαστον αὐτῶν χρυσῶι στεφάνωι, ll. 8, 22)
- they receive the status of a πρόξενος, proxenos (ll. 9, 23-24)
- they take share in all that those from the synodos take share in (ll. 9-11, 24-25)

The decrees are to be inscribed in a stone stele and the stele is to be set up in the most conspicuous place in the gymnasium.

The names of the five honorands are the following:

1st decree (1 honorand):
Eukritos son of Pyrrhos

2nd decree (4 honorands):
Aristonikos son of Eratosthenes
Milon [...]rou
Zopyros son of Herakleitos
Asklepiades son of Herakleiton


i. Comments It seems that those from the synodos were centered around the gymnasium, as it can be deduced from the following:
- the honorand of the first decree seems to have taken care of the supply of oil. In a gymnasium context the supply of oil was one of the most important benefactions.
- the association prescribes that the stele on which the decrees are to be inscribed is to be set up in the gymnasium
- the stele was found near the gymnasium of Eretria.
In the light of the gymnasium context, 'hoi ek tes synodou' can be perhaps identified with 'hoi ek/apo tou gymnasiou', a name designating a gymnasium group (e.g. CAP Inv. 1586). Yet, the absence of an age qualification or explicit mention to the gymnasium in the name, would rather point to a group operating within the cadre of the gymnasium, yet to some degree projecting a different identity.


i. Private association Probable
Note The name of the group and the presence of an internal organization (tamias, appointed committees) points to a well-organised group with links to the gymnasium (See XII.i: Comments).