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Last Updated on 03 Jul 2019

Author: Annelies Cazemier

CAPInv. 9: to koinon Berytion Poseidoniaston emporon kai naukleron kai egdocheon


i. Geographical area Aegean Islands
ii. Region Delos
iii. Site Delos


i. Full name (original language) τὸ κοινὸν Βηρυτίων Ποσειδωνιαστῶν ἐμπόρων καὶ ναυκλήρων καὶ ἐγδοχέων (I.Délos 1520, ll. 27-8 and other sources)
ii. Full name (transliterated) to koinon Berytion Poseidoniaston emporon kai naukleron kai egdocheon


i. Date(s) 149 - 90 BC


i. Name in other forms - τὸ κοινὸν Βηρυτίων Ποσειδωνιαστῶν, to koinon Berytion Poseidoniaston (I.Délos 1520, ll. 51-2) --
shorter (without professional designations)
- κοινὸν Βηρυτίων ἐμπόρων καὶ ναυκλήρων καὶ ἐγδοχέων, Koinon Berytion emporon kai naukleron kai
(I.Délos 1772; 1773; cf. 1780; 1791) -- shorter (without theophoric name)
- τὸ κοινὸν Βηρυτίων τῶν ἐν Δήλωι ἐμπόρων καὶ ναυκλήρων καὶ ἐγδοχέων, to koinon Berytion ton en
Deloi emporon kai naukleron kai egdocheon
(I.Délos 1777) -- shorter (without theophoric name) / with
additional (geographical) element
- [τὸ ἐν Δήλ]ωι κοινὸν Βηρυτίων Ποσ[ειδωνιαστῶν ἐμπόρω]ν καὶ ναυκλήρων [καὶ ἐ]γδοχέων, to en Deloi
koinon Berytion Poseidoniaston emporon kai naukleron kai egdocheon
(I.Délos 1520, ll. 1-2) -- longer /
with additional (geographical) element (restored)
- [τ]ὸ κοινὸν τ[ῶν ἐν Δήλωι Β]ηρυτίων Ποσειδωνια[στῶν] ἐμπόρων καὶ ναυκλήρων [κ]αὶ ἐγδοχέων, to
koinon ton en Deloi Berytion Poseidoniaston emporon kai naukleron kai egdocheon
(I.Délos 1782) --
longer / with additional (geographical) element (restored)
ii. Name elements
Geographical:en Deloi
iii. Descriptive terms κοινὸν, koinon
σύνοδος, synodos
Note σύνοδος, synodos: (I.Délos 1520)


i. Source(s) I.Délos 1520 (149/8 BC: Meritt 1977: 184)

I.Délos 1772 (150-110 BC)
I.Délos 1773 (150-110 BC)
I.Délos 1774 (150-110 BC)
I.Délos 1777 (150-110 BC)
I.Délos 1778
I.Délos 1779
I.Délos 1780
I.Délos 1781
I.Délos 1782 (ca. 90 BC)
I.Délos 1791
I.Délos 1795

individual dedications (without direct mention of the association):
I.Délos 1775-1776
I.Délos 1783-1790
I.Délos 1792-1794
I.Délos 1796
Note Tod 1934 (= I.Délos 1520) (incl. English translation)
Meijer and Van Nijf 1992: 57-8, no. 79 (= I.Délos 1520) (translation Tod 1934)
AGRW 224 (= I.Délos 1520) (incl. English translation)

AGRW 226 (= I.Délos 1778) (incl. English translation)
AGRW 227 (= I.Délos 1779) (incl. English translation)
AGRW 228 (= I.Délos 1782) (incl. English translation)
Online Resources I.Délos 1520I.Délos 1772I.Délos 1773I.Délos 1774I.Délos 1777I.Délos 1778I.Délos 1779I.Délos 1780I.Délos 1781I.Délos 1782I.Délos 1791I.Délos 1795
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script honorary decree of the association (I.Délos 1520)
dedications / honorary statues set up by the association (I.Délos 1774; 1777; 1778; 1779; 1780; 1781; 1782; cf. 1795; note also 1796)
dedications made to the association (I.Délos 1772; 1773; 1776
individual dedications by benefactors (I.Délos 1791; cf. 1792; 1793; 1794.

ii. Source(s) provenance in/near the building complex known as the ‘Établissement des Poseidoniastes de Bérytos’ (most texts)
near the area known as the ‘Agora de Théophrastos’ (I.Délos 1777; Guide de Délos 49).


i. Archaeological remains The building of the association has been partly preserved and is known as the ‘Établissement des Poseidoniastes de Bérytos’ (Guide de Délos 57 with references, incl. Picard 1921, EAD 6; see also Trümper 2002 in BCH 126).
ii. References to buildings/objects οἶκος, oikos (I.Délos 1520, l. 3, 10; cf. I.Délos 1774)
τέμενος, temenos (I.Délos 1520, ll. 11-12)
αὐλή, aule (I.Délos 1520, l. 23; cf. 91)
νάοι, naoi (I.Délos 1520, l. 25)
προστόα, prostoa (I.Délos 1520, l. 25)
ἱερόν, hieron (I.Délos 1520, ll. 25-6)
στοά, stoa (I.Délos 1773; 1774)
στοαὶ, stoai (I.Délos 1772)

ἀνδριάς, andrias (I.Délos 1520, l. 24; 27)
γραπτή εἰκών, grapte eikon (I.Délos 1520, ll. 26-7; 31)
χρυσός στέφανος, chrysos stephanos (I.Délos 1520, l. 37ff.)
χρηστήρια, chresteria (I.Délos 1774)
βωμός, bomos (I.Délos 1791)

τὰ ἱ]ε̣ρ̣ὰ̣ (I.Délos 1776)


ii. Leadership Terminology: ἀρχιθιασίτης, archithiasitēs (I.Délos 1520 lines 66-67, 84, 88, 90; I.Délos 1778; I.Délos 1779; I.Délos 1782; I.Délos 1791) -- there was the possibility to serve as archithiasitēs more than once (I.Délos 1778).
Eponymous office I.Délos 1778; 1779; 1782
iii. Members Terminology: θιασίται, thiasitai (I.Délos 1520 lines 83-84, 86) ---- used for regular members as opposed to officials: ἰδιώται, idiōtai (I.Délos 1520 line 58; cf. line 89).
iv. Officials Collective term (used for officials as opposed to regular members): ἄρχοντες, archontes (I.Délos 1520 line 58) ---- specific officials: (financial) ἀργυροταμίαι, argyrotamiai, treasurers (I.Délos 1520 line 70; cf. 93); (religious) there is a θύτης, thutēs, sacrificer (I.Délos 1520 line 33) at the Posidea, who could well be an official of the association (cf. X.iii.).
v. Other staff βουτρόφοι, boutrophoi, ox-rearers, who were elected (I.Délos 1520 line 69; cf. 78-79) and who had to lead an ox in procession in honour of Marcus Minatius as well as organise the yearly reception in his honour, involving a banquet; for these tasks they were given a total sum of 300 drachmas, and they needed to present a written financial account at the first meeting after the reception (I.Délos 1520 lines 68-78) ---- Note also: those elected to carry out the construction of the precinct (I.Délos 1520 lines 11-12).
Known practice of appointment Both the boutrophoi and those responsible for the construction of the temenos were elected by show of hands (I.Délos 1520, ll. 11-12, 78-9).
vi. Laws and rules The ox-rearers are elected according to the law (κατὰ τὸν νόμον: I.Délos 1520 line 69). ---- There are two sections in the honorific decree for Marcus Minatius which prescribe repercussions in case anyone tries to propose changes to the honours, or acts contrary to the decree (I.Délos 1520 lines 58-68 and 78-89). Those who try and make changes are ‘to perish utterly’, both they and their children (lines 61-62; cf. 82). There is also a fine of 6000 crowned drachmas sacred to Poseidon and liability to prosecution (lines 65-66). This applies to the archithiasitēs as well (lines 66-68). If any of the ox-rearers fails to perform his task, he owes 1000 drachmas sacred to Poseidon and will be liable to prosecution (lines 78-81). Anyone failing to fulfill the requirements of the decree is not only subject to a curse (line 82; cf. 61-62) but can be denounced by members of the association (see VII.(vii).). If the archithiasitēs himself acts contrary to the decree, he can be charged as soon as he leaves office and becomes a regular member (lines 88-89, restored).
vii. Judicial system The honorific decree for Marcus Minatius (I.Délos 1520) stipulates that those who try and make changes to the honours, or act contrary to the decree, are liable to prosecution by the person aggrieved (lines 66, 68, 80-81). Those who fail to fulfill the decree’s requirements can be denounced by members of the association (lines 83-84). It is the task of the archithiasitēs in office to bring in the accuser and the defendant, and to put the matter to the vote of the association’s members (lines 84-86). The accuser receives a third of the sum exacted from the accused (lines 87-88). See also IV.(v).
viii. Obligations Among the honours awarded by the association to Marcus Minatius, it is said that he is to be exempt from every task and every expense (ἀλειτούργητος πάσης ἀσχολίας καὶ δαπάνης πάσης, aleitourgetos pases ascholias kai dapanes pases: I.Délos 1520 lines 48-49) which may suggest that such tasks and expenses were part of the obligations of regular members.


i. Treasury/Funds There is mention of funds required for the completion of the club-house and for the repayment of money which had been lent to the association (I.Délos 1520 lines 3-4). ---- The treasurers of the associations are to give 150 drachmas to the ox-rearers for leading an ox in procession in honour of Marcus Minatius and another 150 drachmas for organising the yearly reception in his honour (I.Délos 1520 lines 68-74). ---- It seems that the treasurers also paid the costs of erecting the stele with the decree in honour of Marcus Minatius (I.Délos 1520 lines 92-93, restored).
ii. Realty The association has its own building (see III.(i). and III.(ii).)
iii. Income The association received loans (I.Délos 1520 line 3-4), one of their money-lenders being the Roman banker Marcus Minatius (I.Délos 1520 line 10ff.; cf. lines 29-30). ---- Marcus Minatius waved the interest on his loan, allocating the sum toward the construction of the association’s precinct (I.Délos 1520 lines 10-12). ---- Marcus Minatius also presented the association with a contribution of 7000 drachmas (I.Délos 1520 lines 12-13) ---- Fines of 6000 and 1000 drachmas are to be paid by those who do not adhere to the decree in honour of Marcus Minatius (see IV.(v).).


ii. Gender Men
Note The attested individuals are men.
iv. Status Foreigners (from Berytos << Phoenicia) who were merchants, shippers, or warehousemen ---- the Roman banker Marcus Minatius (honoured by the association: I.Délos 1520) possibly obtained some sort of membership as well.
v. Relations Some family members.


i. Assemblies The association held monthly meetings (σύνοδοι: I.Délos 1520 lines 44-45; cf. 33) ---- There is specific mention of a meeting (σύλλογος: I.Délos 1520 line 77) during which the ox-rearers were to present their written accounts. ---- Besides the decree in honour of Marcus Minatius (referred to as ψήφισμα: I.Délos 1520 lines 60, 81-82; cf. 90), the association is known to have passed other decrees (I.Délos 1520 lines 4, 9).
ii. Meetings and events It is not entirely clear whether the processions to which Marcus Minatius is allowed to bring one guest (I.Délos lines 47-48) concern the yearly procession during the Apollonia at which an ox is led in Marcus’s honour (cf. VIII.(i).) or (also includes) other processions, perhaps organised by the association itself.
iii. Worship There is a Posideia festival which appears to have been organised by the association; a proclamation made during the festival (in honour of Marcus Minatius) refers to the association simply as koinon (I.Délos 1520 lines 38-41); the association reserved a seat for Marcus Minatius at the Posideia, next after that of the sacrificer (I.Délos 1520 lines 32-33). ----- Fines were to be paid to the association in drachmas sacred to Poseidon (see IV.(v).) ---- Various dedications to Poseidon were found inside the building complex of the association (I.Délos 1786; 1790; 1793; 1794; cf. I.Délos 1787; 1788). ----

The association set up a statue as well as an altar in honour of the goddess Roma (I.Délos 1778; 1779).

Other deities known to have been worshipped by the association include the ‘ancestral gods’ (I.Délos 1774; 1781; cf. individual dedications: I.Délos 1776; 1783; 1785; 1789) and Apollo (I.Délos 1777).
Deities worshipped Poseidon
ancestral gods
iv. Honours/Other activities The association honoured the Roman banker Marcus Minatius (I.Délos 1520), their benefactor (lines 30, 46), with: a statue with inscription (lines 24, 27-31); a painted portrait with inscription (lines 26-27, 31-32); a seat at the Posideia next after that of the sacrificer (lines 32-33); a front-seat at all other meetings (lines 33-34); a day celebrated in his honour each year on the day after the procession of the Apollonia (to which he was allowed to bring two guests) (lines 34-36) consisting of a reception, including a banquet (lines 72-73, 75; cf. 15-16); the award of crowns, accompanied by proclamations, at the Posideia, on his own day, as well as at the association’s monthly meetings (lines 36-47); the possibility to bring one guest on the occasion of each procession (lines 47-48); exemptions from every task and every expense (lines 48-49); and an ox to be led in his honour every year in the procession of the Apollonia, with an inscription (lines 49-52; cf. 71, 75). ---- The association also honoured the Roman official Cn. Octavius Cn.f. as their benefactor (I.Délos 1782). ---- Several other benefactors of the association, some from Berytos, are known (e.g., I.Délos 1772; 1773; 1780; 1791). ---- The association also honoured the Athenians (I.Délos 1777).


i. Local interaction The Roman banker Marcus Minatius invited all members of the association to a sacrifice which he offered to the gods on behalf of the association, as well as to a banquet (I.Délos 1520 lines 13-16; cf. 75); he also presented the association with the golden crown with which he himself was to be crowned on regular occasions (I.Délos 1520 lines 36-38ff.); as a result of his various benefactions (cf. V.(iii).), Marcus Minatius was honoured by the association (cf. VII.(v).)

The proclamations in honour of Marcus Minatius were to take place ‘after the people’ (μετὰ τὸν δῆμον, meta ton demon: I.Délos 1520 line 47); this might well refer to the Athenian people (cf. Tod 1934 in JHS 54: 152). The association is known to have honoured the Athenians (I.Délos 1777). One of the association’s honorific texts seems to have been set up together with the Athenians (I.Délos 1780). The statue of the goddess Roma dedicated by the association was produced by an Athenian artist (I.Délos 1778).

The Apollonia, during which the association arranged for an ox to be led in procession for Marcus Minatius (I.Délos 1520 lines 49-52; cf. 35), must be the public Delian festival in honour of Apollo; contrast the more detailed version of the association’s name in the ox’s inscription with the basic reference to koinon in the proclamation at the Posideia (I.Délos 1520 lines 38-41).
ii. Interaction abroad Besides honouring the Roman banker Marcus Minatius (I.Délos 1520), the association honoured the Roman official Cn. Octavius Cn.f. (I.Délos 1782) as well as worshipping the goddess Roma (I.Délos 1778; 1779).


ii. Poland concordance B 168
iii. Bibliography Bruneau, P. and Ducat, J. (2005), Guide de Délos, École Francaise d’Athènes.
Meijer, F. and Van Nijf, O. (1992), Trade, transport, and society in the ancient world: a sourcebook,
Meritt, B.D. (1977), 'Athenian archons 347/6 - 48/7 BC', Historia 26: 161-91.
Tod, M.N. (1934), 'Greek Inscriptions at Cairness House', JHS 54: 140-62.
Trümper, M. (2002), Das Sanktuarium des "Établissement des Poseidoniastes de Bérytos" in Delos. Zur
Baugeschichte eines griechischen Vereinsheiligtums, BCH 126-1: 265-330.


i. Private association Certain
Note The descriptive term and the wellknown character and activity of this association guarantees its private status.