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Last Updated on 23 May 2019

Author: Ursula Kunnert

CAPInv. 1002: he gitnia


i. Geographical area Eastern Asia Minor
ii. Region Cilicia
iii. Site Anazarbos


i. Full name (original language) ἡ γιτνία (I.Anazarbos 49, ll. 6-7)
ii. Full name (transliterated) he gitnia


i. Date(s) i - ii AD


ii. Name elements
iii. Descriptive terms γ(ε)ιτνία, g(e)itnia
Note g(e)itnia: I.Anazarbos 49, ll. 6-7


i. Source(s) I.Anazarbos 49 (i-ii AD)
Note Other editions/commentaries:
Gough 1952: 148-9, no. 36
Sayar 2004: 258, no. 81
SEG 12: 513
Online Resources I.Anazarbos 49
SEG 12: 513
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script A dedicatory inscription in Greek
i.c. Physical format(s) A small moulded limestone altar (W. 0.25 m)
ii. Source(s) provenance Found in Taşlıhöyük, approx. 2 km east of Anazarbos


iii. Worship Menophilos set up a dedication to Zeus Soter, Poseidon Asphaleios and Ge Hedraia ὑπὲρ τῆς γιτνίας (hyper tes gitnias, ll. 6-7), maybe a neighborhood association. On the nature of the worshipped deities, see Sayar, in I.Anazarbos 49.
Deities worshipped Zeus Soter
Poseidon Asphaleios
Ge Hedraia


i. Comments Gough 1952: 148-9, dated the inscription to the end of the 1st century because of the lettering. The worshipped deities (in ll. 2 and 4 genitives are used instead of datives, cf. the commentary of J. Nollé on I.Side 15 with note 68) are those of the sky, the sea and the earth. Therefore he interpreted the inscription as 'an invocation against earthquakes' and thought it to be a reaction to a disastrous earthquake in the principate of Nerva (Malalas, Chronographia X 53, ed. J. Thurn, Ioannis Malalae Chronographia, Berlin 2000, 202-3). Because of the lettering a second century AD date should be considered as well.
The dedicator Menophilos is presumably a member of the association.
For neighborhood associations cf. Harland 2013: 28-9. Pont 2013: 129-56.
iii. Bibliography Gough, M. (1952), ‘Anazarbus’, AS 2: 85-150, esp. 148-9, no. 36.
Harland, P.A. (2013), Associations, Synagogues, and Congregations: Claiming a Place in Ancient Mediterranean Society. 2nd ed. Ontario.
Pont, A.-V. (2013), ‘Les groupes de voisinage dans les villes d' Asie Mineure occidentale à l' époque impériale’, in P. Fröhlich and P. Hamon (eds.), Groupes et associations dans les cités grecques (IIIe siècle av. J.-C.-IIe siècle apr. J.-C.). Actes de la table ronde de Paris INHA, 19-20 juin 2009, Genève: 129-56.
Sayar, M.H. (2004), ‘V. Appendix: Inschriften’, in K. Ehling, D. Pohl and M.H. Sayar (eds.), Kulturbegegnung in einem Brückenland. Gottheiten und Kulte als Indikatoren von Akkulturationsprozessen im Ebenen Kilikien. Bonn: 258, no. 81.


i. Private association Possible
Note The term geitnia (= γειτονία, geitonia) may refer to an urban neighborhood association (cf. Sayar, in I.Anazarbos 49 with reference to BE 1954: no. 238). However, the inscription displays no evidence for a formally organized and durable association.
ii. Historical authenticity Certain