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Last Updated on 15 Mar 2017

Author: Loredana Cappelletti

CAPInv. 1078: collegium scabillariorum


i. Geographical area Southern Italy with Sicily
ii. Region Campania
iii. Site Pozzuoli (anc. Puteoli)


i. Full name (original language) collegium scabillariorum (CIL X 1642, ll. 11-12; CIL X 1643, ll. 6-7)
ii. Full name (transliterated) collegium scabillariorum


i. Date(s) 139 - 200 AD


i. Name in other forms socii scabillarii Puteolani (CIL X 1647, ll. 12-13)
scabillarii (AE 1956: 137; see Mennella and Apicella 2000, no. 70)
ii. Name elements
Professional:scabillarii: scabillum players, musicians esp. during theater performances; see Leppin 1992: 115 and 154-6.
iii. Descriptive terms collegium, collegium
Note collegium (CIL X 1642, l. 11; CIL X 1643, l. 6)


i. Source(s) CIL X 1642 (AD 139)
CIL X 1643 (AD 140)
CIL X 1647 (AD 161)
AE 1956: 137 (AD 151- 200)
Note ILS 0335; EDR116775 (= CIL X 1642)
EDR108292 (= CIL X 1643)
EDR116776 (= CIL X 1647)
EDR074098 (= AE 1956: 137)
Online Resources TM 256847 and EDR116775 (= CIL X 1642)
TM 256844 and EDR108292 (= CIL X 1643)
TM 256846 and EDR116776 (= CIL X 1647)
TM 250245 and EDR074098(= AE 1956: 137)
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script All inscriptions are in Latin.
CIL X 1642 is a dedication of a statue to the Emperor Antoninus Pius made by the collegium scabillariorum; CIL X 1643 is a dedication of a statue to his wife Faustina made by the collegium scabillariorum; CIL X 1647 is a dedication of a statue to his adoptive son, the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, made by C. Iulius Fortunatus, quinquennalis (of the scabillarii), at his own expense, in the name of the socii scabillarii Puteolani (nomine sociorum scabillariorum Puteolanorum). AE 1956: 137, ll. 1-2 mentions a certain Pulberius loved by the scabillarii (Pulberi amori scabillariorum).
i.c. Physical format(s) CIL X 1642, 1643 and 1647 are marble bases, which originally supported statues of the three members of the Imperial family. AE 1956: 137 is a garlanded mosaic inscription, inserted into the mosaic paving of the arch X of the Flavian Amphitheater (see Demma 2007: 36 fig. 12).
ii. Source(s) provenance CIL X 1642, 1643 and 1647 found in Pozzuoli, garden of Palazzo Maglione (via Marconi); An.Ép. 1956, 137 found in Pozzuoli, in a room beneath the seating of the cavea of the Flavian Amphitheater (arch X).


i. Archaeological remains CIL X 1642, 1643 and 1647 were found in 1855 near the entrance, adorned with columns, of a trapezoidal shaped building; the building was part of the Puteolan theater and was most likely the schola of the collegium, where the scabillarii held their meetings (see Bollmann 1998: 373 A 54; cf. Camodeca 2011: 210 n. 49). The mosaic inscription AE 1956: 137 decorated the mosaic paving of a room (ca. 11 m. l.), with barrell vault and a wall (ca. 30 cm. h.) partially covered with marble. This room was a meeting place of the scabillarii, either their schola or, more likely, their sacellum (Bollmann 1998: 377 A 56 no. 10).
ii. References to buildings/objects l(ocus) (CIL X 1642, l. 14; CIL X 1643, l. 9; CIL X 1647, l. 16), the place of each base statue within the theatre ground.


ii. Leadership Quinquennalis
CIL X 1647, l. 11 informs that in AD 161 C. Iulius Fortunatus was quinquennalis, i.e. chief officer of the scabillarii for a five year term (see Castagnetti 2007: 240).
It may be the case that the base statue in honor of Marcus Aurelius set up by the quinquennalis C. Iulius Fortunatus at his own expense (CIL X 1647) was among the duties imposed by his office.
iii. Members Referred to as socii (CIL X 1647) and as scabillarii (AE 1956: 137).
viii. Obligations The erection of the two bases/statues, with which the scabillarii honoured Antoninus Pius and Faustina (CIL X 1642; 1643) may imply that their association either collected money ad hoc or each member had to pay regularly some sum, which went into the (unattested) treasury (see VIII.i.).


i. Treasury/Funds The erection of the two bases/statues, with which Antonius Pius and Faustina were honoured by the scabillarii (CIL X 1642; 1643) may imply that their association had its own funds/treasury.
ii. Realty The schola in the theater was almost certainly not property of the collegium scabillariorum, in fact the statue bases were erected on public land, see the formula l(ocus) d(atus) d(ecreto) d(ecurionum) in CIL X 1642, l. 14; CIL X 1643, l. 9; CIL X 1647, l. 16 (cf. Demma 2007: 73). The schola or sacellum in the amphitheater was perhaps not property of the scabillarii, but a public place exclusively used by their association or rented out to the association, cf. Steuernagel 1999: 155.


ii. Gender Men
Note Male members: the chief officer C. Iulius Fortunatus (CIL X 1647) and, if he was a member, the Pulberius honoured in AE 1956: 137.
iii. Age Adults
Note See the chief officer C. Iulius Fortunatus (CIL X 1647).
iv. Status The chief officer C. Iulius Fortunatus (CIL X 1647) was a freedman (see Castagnetti 2007: 242.) The Pulberius mentioned in AE 1956: 137 (accepting that he was a member) was a foreigner: see Kajanto 1965, 341.


i. Assemblies The collegium scabillariorum was authorized to assemble (and to associate) by the Roman Senate (CIL X 1642, l. 13; CIL X 1643, l. 8; CIL X 1647, l. 14); this right, the ius coeundi, implies the existence of a deliberative activity/assembly of the association.
ii. Meetings and events The existence of collegial meeting places, schola and sacellum, in the theater as well in the amphitheater implies activities such as deliberative assemblies, banquets, commemorative celebrations, religious ceremonies, organized by the scabillarii; see Bollmann 1998: 377-378; Steuernagel 1999: 155.
iv. Honours/Other activities The scabillarii awarded two bases/statues to Emperor Antoninus Pius and his wife Faustina (CIL X 1642 and CIL X 1643) and a mosaic inscription to a certain Pulberius (AE 1956: 137). C. Iulius Fortunatus, chief officer of the scabillarii, awarded a base/statue to Emperor Marcus Aurelius in the name of his socii (CIL X 1647).


i. Local interaction The Puteolan ordo decurionum authorized the scabillarii to raise the bases/statues on public land, i.e. in the theatre, see the formula l(ocus) d(atus) d(ecreto) d(ecurionum) in CIL X 1642, l. 14; CIL X 1643, l. 9; CIL X 1647, l. 16.
ii. Interaction abroad The Roman Senate authorized the scabillarii to assemble/associate, see the formula quibus [scil. the collegium scabillariorum/the socii scabillarii] ex s(enatus) c(onsulto) coire licet in CIL X 1642, l. 13; CIL X 1643, l. 8; CIL X 1647, l. 14. The imperial or senatorial authorization formula was in use for the collegia from the first to the third centuries AD, see Liu 2005: 288.
The scabillarii awarded bases/statues to members of the Imperial family (CIL X 1642; CIL X 1643; CIL X 1647).


i. Comments For the interesting hypothesis, according to which the collegium scabillariorum together with other local associations and private individuals financed the restoration of the Flavian amphitheater under the Antonines see Steuernagel 1999: 154-60.
iii. Bibliography Bollmann, B. (1998), Römische Vereinshäuser: Untersuchungen zu den Scholae der römischen Berufs-, Kult- und Augustalen-Kollegien in Italien. Mainz.
Camodeca, G. (2011), ‘Puteoli e Cumae in epoca romana nel Campanien di Beloch’, in F. Senatore (ed.), Karl Julius Beloch da Sorrento nell'Antichità alla Campania, Atti del Convegno storiografico in memoria di Claudio Ferone, Piano di Sorrento, 28 marzo 2009, Roma: 223-225.
Castagnetti, S. (2007), ‘I collegia della Campania’, in E. Lo Cascio, and G.D. Merola (eds.), Forme di aggregazione nel mondo romano, Bari: 223-42.
Demma, F. (2007), Monumenti pubblici di Puteoli: Per un'archeologia dell'architettura. Roma.
Kajanto, T. (1965), The Latin Cognomina. Helsinki.
Leppin, H. (1992), Histrionen. Bonn.
Liu, J. (2005), ‘Local Governments and Collegia: A New Appraisal of the Evidence’, in J.-J. Aubert and et al. (eds.), A Tall Order: Writing the Social History of the Ancient World, München: 285-316.
Mennella, G., and Apicella, G. (2000), Le corporazioni professionali nell'Italia romana: un aggiornamento al Waltzing. Napoli.
Steuernagel, D. (1999), ‘Corporate Identity'. Über Vereins-, Stadt- und Staatskulte im kaiserzeitlichen Puteoli’, MDAI(R) 106: 149-87.


i. Private association Certain
Note The terminology (collegium, socii) in combination with other elements (e.g. the existence of a hierarchical and financial structure) suggests that we are dealing with a well-organised professional private group.