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Last Updated on 16 Mar 2017

Author: Loredana Cappelletti

CAPInv. 1079: hoi Tyrioi stationarioi stationos Tyriakes tes en koloniai Sebastei Potiolois


i. Geographical area Southern Italy with Sicily
ii. Region Campania
iii. Site Pozzuoli (anc. Puteoli)


i. Full name (original language) οἱ Τύριοι στατιωνάριοι στατίωνος Τυριακῆς τῆς ἐν κολωνίᾳ Σεβαστῇ Ποτιόλοις (IG XIV 830, ll. 39-40)
ii. Full name (transliterated) hoi Tyrioi stationarioi stationos Tyriakes tes en koloniai Sebastei Potiolois


i. Date(s) 174 AD


i. Name in other forms οἱ ἐν Ποτιόλοις κατοικοῦντες Τύριοι, hoi en Potiolois katoikountes Tyrioi (IG XIV 830, ll. 7-8), shorter, without the full name of the colony and the word stationarioi; in addition the word katoikountes.
οἱ ἐν Ποτιόλοις κατοικοῦντες, hoi en Potiolois katoikountes (IG XIV 830, ll. 3-4), shorter, without ethnic, the full name of the colony, and the word stationarioi; in addition the word katoikountes.
οἱ ἐν Ποτιόλοις στατιωνάριοι, hoi en Potiolois stationarioi (IG XIV 830, ll. 33-34), shorter, without ethnic and other elements.
οἱ Τύριοι στατιωνάριοι, hoi Tyrioi stationarioi (IG XIV 830, l. 22) shorter, without geographical element.
ii. Name elements
Ethnic:hoi Tyrioi
Geographical:en Potiolois katoikountes; en Potiolois stationarioi


i. Source(s) IG XIV 830 (23 July AD 174)

Note See also: IGR I 421; CIG 5853; OGIS 595; AGRW 317; Sosin 1999: 275-84

Sources referring to the presence of Tyrians at Pozzuoli, without direct mention of the association: CIL X 1601 (AD 80-200); IGR I 420 (AD 79); Camodeca 2006: 283 (AD 151-200)
Online Resources IG XIV 830 and AGRW ID 1852
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script IG XIV 830, ll. 1-19, contain the letter written in Greek on 23 July AD 174 by the Tyrian settlers at Pozzuoli to their Phoenician mother-city of Tyros, requesting help in making the yearly payment of 250 denarii for the rent of their Puteolan station; ll. 20-41, partially preserved, contain the acta of the boule of Tyros, conducted on 8 December AD 174. After the reading of the letter (ll. 20-31), the boule discussed the request (ll. 31-41).
i.c. Physical format(s) IG XIV 830 is a great marble slab.
ii. Source(s) provenance IG XIV 830 found at Pozzuoli, near S. Eufemia (a place? a church?); now in Rome, Musei Capitolini.


i. Archaeological remains The Tyrian station was probably located at the beginning of the via Campana, where the inscriptions IGR I 420 and CIL X 1601 were found. Presumably belonged to the station a building with colonnade dating from the Augustan time, restored between the end of the second and the mid third century AD, see Camodeca 2006: 271, n. 6; cf. Lombardi 2011: 395-6.
ii. References to buildings/objects στατίων, station (IG XIV 830, ll. 5, 10, 12, 14, 17, 25, 28, 35, 39, 41): the word station is mostly used for a building complex used (primarily) as trade office by organized groups of foreigners (usually merchants, shippers, businessmen).
πάτριοι θεοί, patrioi theoi (statues of) (IG XIV 830, ll. 9, 24)
νάοι, naoi (IG XIV 830, ll. 10, 24)
Θεὸς ἅγιος Σαρεπτηνός, Theos hagios Sareptenos (statue of) (IGR I 420)


iv. Officials Laches son of Preimogeneia brought the letter of the Tyrian stationarioi from Pozzuoli to Tyros; he and his son Agathopous defended the request of the Tyrians during the debate at the boule meeting (IG XIV 830, ll. 22-23, 38-39). They could well be officials of the association.
viii. Obligations The Tyrian stationarioi in Pozzuoli carried a number of regular obligations:
they cared for, ἐπεμελοῦντο, epemelounto (IG XIV 830, l. 7), their station (which surpassed the others in adornment and size, ll. 5-7);
they pay, ἀναλίσκοντες, analiskontes, for sacrifices and rites (IG XIV 830, ll. 9, 23-24), to their ancestral gods consacrated in Puteolan temples;
payment of the annual μισθός, misthos (IG XIV 830, ll. 10, 13, 25) of 250 denarii for the rent of the station in Pozzuoli;
payments, ἀναλώματα, analomata (IG XIV 830, ll. 11, 26), for the bull sacrifice at the games in Pozzuoli;
payments, ἀναλώματα, analomata (IG XIV 830, ll. 14, 27-28) incurred for the fitting out of the station, on the sacred days of the Emperor.
ix. Privileges If, as seems probable, part of the pagus Tyrianus inhabited/owned by the Tyrians (Camodeca 2006: 283), served as burial grounds (see Verboven 2011: 344), it may be the case that all members were offered the possibility of being buried there.


i. Treasury/Funds Some elements - such as the regular payments carried by the members of the station (see above Obligations), the engraving and erection of the slab, the sending of a delegation from Pozzuoli to Tyros - imply that the association had its own treasury/funds.
ii. Realty Presumably the pagus Tyrianus mentioned in Camodeca 2006: 283 - which was a rural area maybe north of Pozzuoli - derived its name from the Tyrians, who had there some properties: Camodeca 2006: 284.
iii. Income Regular payments carried by the members of the station would have represented a form of income.
According to Philokles son of Diodoros (IG XIV 830, ll. 31-33) the Tyrian stationarioi in Rome furnished the stationarioi in Pozzuoli with the 250 denarii - which they themselves received from the mother-city - for the rent of the station, i.e. the mother-city of Tyros provided the misthos for both stations.
The Tyrian settlers in Pozzuoli declared, that their station had no income neither from the naukleroi nor from the emporoi (IG XIV 830, ll. 16-17, 30-31).
Most probably the Tyrians in Pozzuoli were successful in gaining the financial help of 250 denarii per year directly from their mother-city, see Sosin 1999: 281-4.


i. Number The Tyrian settlers in Pozzuoli were numerous in the past (i.e. before AD 174); in AD 174 their number had dwindled to a few (IG XIV 830, l. 8).
ii. Gender Men
Note Attested individuals are men (IG XIV 830)
iii. Age Adults
Note Attested individuals are adults (IG XIV 830).
iv. Status The members of the station were foreigner from Tyros, residents in Pozzuoli; they were many and wealthy (before AD 174) (IG XIV 830).
v. Relations Laches son of Preimogeneia and his son Agathopous were both members of the Tyrian station in Pozzuoli (IG XIV 830, ll. 38-40).


ii. Meetings and events It seems plausible that the station and the pagus Tyrianus (mentioned Camodeca 2006: 283), were places for communal meetings held to mark religious events, commemorative celebrations, etc. organized by the Tyrians. See also below Worship.
iii. Worship The Tyrian settlers organized sacrifices and rites, θυσίαι καὶ θρησκεῖαι, thusiai kai threskeiai (IG XIV 830, ll. 9, 23-24), to their ancestral gods consacrated in Puteolan temples; they pay for the bull sacrifice, βουθυσία,bouthysia at the games in Pozzuoli (IG XIV 830, ll. 11, 26); they celebrated the sacred days of the Roman Emperor (IG XIV 830, ll. 14, 27-28). According to CIL X 1601 and IGR I 420 the Tyrians worshipped the Θεὸς ἅγιος Σαρεπτηνός, Theos hagios Sareptenos, the sacred god of Sarepta (= Ras el-Qantara), see Lombardi 2011: 416-22, 430-1. This god may be among the ancestral gods mentioned in IG XIV 830, l. 9: see AGRW 317.
Deities worshipped Ancestral gods (Theos hagios Sareptenos ?)
iv. Honours/Other activities The Tyrian settlers honored the Roman Emperor by celebrating his sacred days (IG XIV 830, ll. 14, 27-28).


i. Local interaction The station was rented out to the Tyrians by the Puteolan authorities (IG XIV 830).
The Tyrians participated at the games in Pozzuoli by offering the bull sacrifice (IG XIV 830, ll. 11, 26)
The Puteolan ordo decurionum granted a public location (locus concessus) for the inscription commemorating the journey of the statue of the Theos hagios Sareptenos from Tyros to Pozzuoli (IGR I 420).
ii. Interaction abroad Cultic, institutional, financial interactions with the mother city of Tyros (IG XIV 830; CIL X 1601; IGR I 420).
Financial interaction with the Tyrian station in Rome (IG XIV 830).
Cultic interaction with the Imperial institution (IG XIV 830).


ii. Poland concordance Poland Ε 94b
iii. Bibliography Camodeca, G. (2006), ‘Comunità di peregrini a Puteoli nei primi due secoli dell'impero’, in M.G. Angeli Bertinelli and A. Donati (eds.), Le vie della storia. Migrazioni di popoli, viaggi di individui, circolazioni di idee nel Mediterraneo antico, Atti del II Incontro Internazionale di Storia Antica, Genova, 6-8 ottobre 2004, Roma: 269-87.
Lombardi, P. (2011), ‘I Tiri di Puteoli e il dio di Sarepta. La documentazione epigrafica da una sponda all'altra del Mediterraneo’, MediterrAnt 14 1-2: 391-432.
Sosin, J.D. (1999),‘Tyrian stationarii at Puteoli’, Tyche 14: 275-84.
Verboven, K. (2011), ‘Resident Aliens and Translocal Merchant Collegia in the Roman Empire’, in O. Hekster and T. Kaizer (eds.), Frontiers in the Roman World. Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop of the International Network Impact of Empire, Durham, 16-19 april 2009, Leiden: 335-48.


i. Private association Possible
Note The mother city had institutional and financial competence in matters of the existence and survival of the Tyrian station, see Camodeca 2006: 271; cf. Sosin 1999: 284; Verboven 2011: 339. It is therefore uncertain whether this was a private association proper.