Stable URL: as PDF
Last Updated on 01 Jul 2019

Author: Benedikt Eckhardt

CAPInv. 119: he [ergasia] ton gnaphe[on kai bapheon kai] haplourgon


i. Geographical area Western Asia Minor
ii. Region Phrygia
iii. Site Laodikeia by the Lykos


i. Full name (original language) ἡ [ἐργασία] τῶν γναφέ[ων καὶ βαφέων καὶ] ἁπλουργῶν (CIG 3938, ll. 2-4)
ii. Full name (transliterated) he [ergasia] ton gnaphe[on kai bapheon kai] haplourgon


i. Date(s) iii AD


ii. Name elements
Purple-dyers ("Schneckenpurpureinfachfärber" according to Corsten)
iii. Descriptive terms [ἐργασία], [ergasia]
Note [ergasia]: CIG 3938, l. 2

He [ergasia] is restored by both Franz (CIG 3938) and Ramsay 1895: 74-5, no. 8, and accepted by Poland 1909: 117 and van Nijf 1997: 94, no. 106, but not by Corsten 1997: no. 50.


i. Source(s) CIG 3938 (iii AD)
Note See also:
Dittmann-Schöne V.6.1
I.Laodikeia am Lykos 50

All except Corsten restore not only [ἐργασία], [ergasia], but also a third craft: γναφέ[ων καὶ βαφέων καὶ] ἁπλουργῶν, gnaphe[on kai bapheon kai] aplourgon. This restoration might be too long. In l. 2, Chishull’s copy has N, not H; the interpretation as an article introducing [ergasia] is thus based on the presumption that Chishull has misread the letter. Incidentally, it may be noted that according to Corsten's (uncertain) restorations of the seat inscriptions from the theater, the normal term for a professional association in Laodikeia would have been synergasia; in any case, it would be unusual to have one association for two or (with Franz, Ramsay et al.) even three crafts in this region (an exception would be gold- and silversmiths; cf. I.Smyrna 721, a synergasia of gold- and silversmiths, and IGR XVII.1 56 on a similar association in Palmyra).
Online Resources I.Laodikeia am Lykos 50
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Honorary inscription in Greek.
i.c. Physical format(s) The stone is lost; there is only an old copy by Edmund Chishull, the accuracy of which is doubtful (none of the proposed restorations would fit Chishull’s drawing exactly).
ii. Source(s) provenance Reportedly seen just outside of Laodikeia.


ii. References to buildings/objects ἐμπόριον, emporion (l. 2). The honorary inscription is set up for someone who has something to do with (perhaps was in charge of) the emporion, presumably a market hall.


iv. Honours/Other activities If the restorations of CIG and Ramsay are correct, the association honors a person who was in charge of the emporion. Corsten's restoration in I.Laodikeia am Lykos has the civic phylai (l. 9) award the honors.


i. Local interaction The practitioners of two (or three?) trades are joined together in this inscription.


i. Comments Since ergasia is an insecure restoration, it is not clear if this is a cooperation of different associations, one association assembling practitioners of different trades, or no reference to associations at all.
ii. Poland concordance Poland Ζ 70
iii. Bibliography Corsten, Th. (1997), Die Inschriften von Laodikeia am Lykos I. Bonn.
Dittmann-Schöne, I. (2010), Die Berufsvereine in den Städten des kaiserzeitlichen Kleinasiens. 2nd. ed. Regensburg: 247.
Poland, F. (1909), Geschichte des griechischen Vereinswesens. Leipzig.
Ramsay, W.M. (1895), The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia. Vol. 1.1. Oxford.
Van Nijf, O. (1997), The Civic World of Professional Associations in the Roman East. Leiden.


i. Private association Possible
Note The uncertain restoration of ergasia, which runs counter to the text as copied by Chishull, makes this a doubtful reference to associations. If the inscription just mentions trades, it is not evident that they are organized as associations. In any case, the restoration bapheon should probably be discarded.
ii. Historical authenticity Probable (the stone has not been seen for 300 years).