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Author: Jan-Mathieu Carbon

CAPInv. 1655: to koinon ton chalkeon


i. Geographical area Western Asia Minor
ii. Region Lycia
iii. Site Tlos


i. Full name (original language) τὸ κοινὸν τῶν χαλκέων (SEG 58: 1640 A ll. 2-3, 30, 40-41; B ll. 30-31; C ll. 24-25)
ii. Full name (transliterated) to koinon ton chalkeon


i. Date(s) m. ii BC


ii. Name elements
Professional:χαλκεῖς, chalkeis: bronze-workers, or more widely metalworkers.
iii. Descriptive terms κοινὸν
Note koinon: A ll. 30, 40, B l. 30, C ll. 17, 24


i. Source(s) SEG 58: 1640 (mid 2nd c. BC)
Note Arnaoutoglou 2012: 207-224, with new readings (mid 2nd c. BC) (SEG 62: 1497).
Harland 2014: 398-409 no. 149.
Parker 2010: 103-121
Online Resources Harland, AGRW no. 149
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Composite dossier:
Side A: Offer of an endowment (testamentary disposition) by Symmasis.
Side B: Acceptance of the offer by the association.
Side C: Formal acceptance by the association.
i.c. Physical format(s) Marble block (top missing) inscribed on three faces (A, B and C).
ii. Source(s) provenance Precise findspot unknown. Said to come from western Lycia. Now in a private collection in Fethiye.
The attribution to Tlos (in preference to Xanthos-Myra) is discussed in Parker 2010: 103.
For the mnema of one Symmasis at Myra, however, cf. Petersen-Luschan, Reisen II 35, no. 54.


ii. References to buildings/objects Sanctuary of Leto:
A l. 30-31: ἐν τῶι τῆς Λητοῦς ἱερῶι, en toi tes Letous hieroi

Altar set up by Symmasis:
B l. 32-33: ἐπὶ τοῦ ἱδρυθησομένου ὑπ᾿ αὐτοῦ βωμοῦ, epi tou hidrythesomenou hyp' autou bomou (altar)

Funerary monument/ tomb:
B l. 36: πρὸς τῷ τάφῳ, pros toi taphoi
C l. 14: εἰς δὲ τὸν τάφον, eis de ton taphon
C ll. 16-17: τὸ πῶμα μονόλιθον, to poma monolithon


iv. Officials χειρισταί, cheiristai: annually appointed administrators of the association, dealing with financial issues (i.e. lending out money) and taking care of issues related to maladministration (A ll. 34-40, B ll. 2-3, 36, C ll. 24-26)

Known practice of appointment annually elected officials: B ll. 2-3: καὶ χειρίζειν κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν διὰ τῶν αἱρουμένων, kai cheirizein kat' eniauton dia ton hairoumenon
v. Other staff B ll. 29-31: οἱ αἱρούμενοι ἄρχοντες τοῦ κοινοῦ τῶν χαλκέων, hoi hairoumenoi archontes tou koinou ton chalkeon
B l. 37: οἱ ἄλλοι ἄρχοντες, hoi alloi archontes
Known practice of appointment appointed officials: οἱ αἱρούμενοι ἄρχοντες, hoi hairoumenoi archontes
vi. Laws and rules Faces A and C contain a set of rules regulating the administration of the endowment:

Α ll. 23-24: κατὰ τὰ γεγραμμένα, kata ta gegrammena

- Cultic regulations setting out allocations of portions and who has the right to participate in the fest (A ll. 5-28)

- Penalties against transgression of the rules regulating the annual feast. A fine of 1,000 dr. will be imposed on anyone violating the rules. The recipient of the fine is Helios (A ll. 40-49).

-Sanctions and penalties against financial transgressions (C ll. 2-14)

- Sanctions and penalties against the violation of the tomb (C ll. 14-23). In case of the violation of the tomb, a penalty to 100 dr will be imposed to the transgressor as if there was a court decision (C. 19 καθάπερ ἐγ δίκης, kathaper eg dikes).

vii. Judicial system A ll. 28-34: The association has the right to resolve issues arising from a dispute over who has the right to participate in the annual feast. The sanctuary of Leto is the physical setting where the dispute should be resolved.

C ll. 12-14: prosecution against financial transgressions

viii. Obligations Obligation to preserve intact the initial capital of the endowment: B ll. 8-11: καὶ παρόντες ἀνθωμολογήσαντο ἀπέχειν τὸ ἀργύριον πᾶν, ἐφ´ ὧ τὸ μὲν ἀρχαῖον διατηρήσουσιν σῶιον ἀεὶ τὸν ἅπαντα χρόνον, kai parontes anthomologesanto apechein to argyrion pan, eph' ho to men archaion diateresousin soion aei ton apart chronon


i. Treasury/Funds See below VIII.iv.
iv. Endowments The association is the recipient of an endowment set up by Symmasis in memory of himself and his wife (A ll. 34-40). The association is acting as the administration of the endowment. Any surplus generated by the interest should be added to the initial capital (A ll. 2-4).


i. Number The circle of Symmasis' relatives allowed to participate in the annual feast in honour of Symmasis and his wife is closely regulated: A ll. 33-34: τε μὴ πλείονας παρεῖναι τῶν ἀνχιστέων ἀν[δ]ρῶν δέκα, te me pleionas pareinai ton achisteon andron deka
ii. Gender Men
iii. Age Adults
Note ἄνδρες, andres
v. Relations Those participating in the annual feast in honour of Symmasis and his wife are relatives and descendants of Symmasis:
A ll. 16, 19, B ll. 24, 44: οἱ υἱοί μου, hoi hyoi mou
A ll. 17-18, 24: τοῖς ἐπιγεινομένοις ἐκ τούτων, tois epigeinomenois ek touton
A l. 21: οἱ γαμβροὶ μοι, hoi gambroi moi
A l. 34: τῶν ἀνχιστέων ἀνδρῶν, ton anchisteon andron
B ll. 37-38: προγεγραμμένοι ἀνχιστεῖς, progegrammenoi anchisteis
B ll. 46-47: τοῖς ἐνγόνοις διὰ γένους, tois engoiois dia genous


i. Assemblies The association accepted the endowment by vote (C ll. 25-26: ἀναδοθείσης ψήφου, ἐκρίθη πάσαις, anadotheises psefou, ekrithe pasais)
ii. Meetings and events Sacrifice of a three year old castrated animal to Helios on the 25th of the month Loios (end of July/early August?) (B ll. 14- 17), followed by a feast for ten of Symmasis’ relatives

Another sacrifice of a goat and a lamb followed by a feast for the administrators (cheiristai) and the archons of the koinon (B ll. 29-37). The feast will take place by the tomb.

Introduction of an eponymous day for Symmasis and his wife Mamma, probably to be celebrated in the same day when the sacrifice to Helios takes place (A ll. 19-22).
iii. Worship Cult is to paid to, with portions from the sacrifices served to Symmasis and his wife Mamma as part of the endowment (B ll. 14-22).
Deities worshipped Helios.
Symmasis and Mama as heroes.

iv. Honours/Other activities See above X ii.


iii. Bibliography Arnaoutoglou, I. (2012), 'Cultural transfer and law in Hellenistic Lycia: the case of Symmasis' foundation', in: B. Legras ed., Transferts culturels et droits dans le monde grec hellénistique, Paris: 205-24
Harland, P.A. (2014), Greco-Roman Associations: Texts, Translations, and Commentary, II. North Coast of the Black Sea, Asia Minor, Berlin/Boston.
Parker, R.C.T. (2010), 'A Funerary Foundation from Hellenistic Lycia', Chiron 40: 103-21.


i. Private association Certain
Note The collectivity of bronze-workers connected with Symmasis' testamentary dispositions clearly seems to be a private professional (though multi-purpose) association.