Stable URL: as PDF
Last Updated on 22 Feb 2017

Author: Ilias Arnaoutoglou

CAPInv. 290: naukleroi kai emporoi hoi pherontes ten synodon tou Dios tou Xeniou


i. Geographical area Attica with Salamis
ii. Region Attica
iii. Site Athens


i. Full name (original language) ναύκληροι καὶ ἔμποροι οἱ φέροντες τὴν σύνοδον τοῦ Διός τοῦ Ξενίου (IG II2 1012 ll. 14-6)
ii. Full name (transliterated) naukleroi kai emporoi hoi pherontes ten synodon tou Dios tou Xeniou


i. Date(s) 112 / 111 BC


ii. Name elements
Professional:These are traders and shipowners; naukleroi kai emporoi.
Theophoric:Zeus Xenios.
iii. Descriptive terms σύνοδος, synodos
Note synodos: IG II2 1012, ll. 17, 25.


i. Source(s) IG II2 1012 (112 / 111 BC)
Note Ed. pr.CIG 124.
Other publications: Lueders no. 30; Michel no. 1502; Syll3 706; GRA I 42; AGRW 5.
Cf. SEG 53: 2201; SEG 54: 11. BE 1926, p. 264; 1946/7, no. 103.
Online Resources IG II2 1012 and AGRW ID 3009
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Greek decision of the Athenian Boule granting the synodos the right to erect a painted picture of their proxenos, Diodoros, son of Theophilos of Halai, epimeletes of the port, in front of his office.
i.c. Physical format(s) Pedimental stele with a bust in the pediment.
ii. Source(s) provenance It was found in Athens, now in Museo Naniano, Venice.


iv. Officials Treasurer (ταμίας, tamias, ll. 13-14).


ii. Gender Men
Note Διόγνητος ἐξ Οἴου, Athenian Onomasticon s.v. 42.
iii. Age Adults
iv. Status Citizen


Deities worshipped Ζεύς Ξένιος, Zeus Xenios


i. Local interaction The association submitted a request, through its treasurer, to the Athenian Boule (πρόσοδον ποιησάμενος πρὸς τὴν βουλὴν, prosodon poiesamenos pros ten Boulen, ll. 12-16) to confirm (ἐπικυρῶσαι, epikurosai) the erection of a painted picture (γραπτῆς εἰκόνος ἐν ὅπλωι, graptes eikonos en hoploi ll. 17-18, 25-26), of their proxenos and epimeletes tou limenos in front of his office (ἀρχεῖον, archeion). The submitted request was interpreted as a proof of an obligation to do so (Radin 1910, 55) and of control of the group by the Athenian council (Jones 1999, 43-45), although I cannot see it as a requirement devised especially for associations.
It is also noteworthy the appropriation of the title πρόξενος, proxenos (drawn from the field of inter-poleis relations) by the association to describe its relation to the honoured person. Proxenos is essentially a representative of the associations' interests in Athens, providing access to local (commercial and political) networks.


i. Comments The decree of the Athenian people is dated in the archonship of Dionysios following Paramonos.
ii. Poland concordance Poland E4
iii. Bibliography Jones, N. (1999), The associations of classical Athens. A response to democracy. New York.
Mikalson, J. (1998), Religion in Hellenistic Athens. Los Angeles: 278.
Radin, M. (1910), The legislation of the Greeks and Romans on corporations. New York.
Reed, Ch. (2003), Maritime traders in the ancient Greek world. Cambridge.
Vélissaropoulos, J. (1980), Les nauclères grecs. Recherches sur les institutions maritimes en Grèce et dans l’Orient hellénisé. Genève: 104.


i. Private association Certain
Note The group displays all the required features of a structured association, despite the reservations of Velissaropoulos 1980: 104.