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Last Updated on 13 Jun 2019

Author: Stella Skaltsa

CAPInv. 347: synetheis


i. Geographical area Aegean Islands
ii. Region Delos
iii. Site Delos


i. Full name (original language) συνήθεις (SEG 13:425)
ii. Full name (transliterated) synetheis


i. Date(s) e. i BC


ii. Name elements
Other:synetheis: the term can be used to denote the friends of a deceased. It is also used in relation to the gymnasium (BE 1955: no. 168; 1958: no. 475). It can also stand for occupational associations (Poland 1909: 52).


i. Source(s) SEG 13: 425 (ca. 88 BC)
Note The inscription is dated after the priest of Artemis Soteira, Antiochos Paconius Artemisieus, probably a freedman of L. Paconius.
Online Resources SEG 13: 425
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Dedication by Dionysios Paconius Neoteros Gnaiou to Hermes and synetheis in Greek.
i.c. Physical format(s) Rectangular marble base.
H. 24 x W. 36.5 x Th. 33.5 cm.
Cutting (16 x 14 cm) on top for the insertion of a Herm, whose archaising head was found in the eastern niche in Room L (Marcadé 1953: 500-10; Hermary 1996: 160-1).
ii. Source(s) provenance House of Hermes.
The base was found in the eastern niche of the south wall of room L.


i. Archaeological remains The House of Hermes (Maison de l'Hermès) was built sometime after 167/166 BC. It is located in the Quartier de l'Inopos (GD no. 89). The base was found in Room L on the third story. The south wall of Room L is provided with two niches. From the eastern niche comes the inscribed base and the head of the archaizing Hermes. The shaft of the Herm is missing.


iv. Officials ἱερεύς, hiereus (l. 5)


iv. Status Slaves or freedmen of the Italian gens Paconia.
The priest of Artemis Soteira, Antiochos Pakonios Artemisieus, and the dedicator, Dionysios Pakonios neoteros, son of Gnaios, were slaves or freedmen of L. Paconius, the latter attested among the Competaliastai (IDelos 1761).
Hasenohr (2008: 36) put forward that the slaves/ freedmen were of Greek origin.


iii. Worship The dedication is addressed to Hermes and synetheis. Hermes was the patron deity of the Italian community (Bruneau 1970: 204-5). The dedication is dated after the priest of Artemis Soteira (the priesthood of Artemis Soteira is otherwise unattested in Delos and we might be dealing with a domestic cult - note that a statuette of Artemis, identified as Artemis Soteira, was found in the House of Hermes [Marcadé 1953: 512-28).
Deities worshipped Hermes
Artemis Soteira


i. Comments According to Hasenohr (2008: 35-36), Dionysios and the synetheis, were all slaves of the Italian gens Paconia. They formed a domestic collegium that operated within the confines of the house. They venerated Hermes, a popular god of the Italian community, Artemis Soteira, and maybe other gods. Before the publication of Hasenohr's article the following suggestions were put forward in relation to the inscription under discussion:
1. Siebert (1966) postulated a koinon of Soteriastai on account of the date of the dedication after the priesthood of Artemis Soteira.
2. Flambard (1982) was inclined to relate the syneitheis to the Competaliastai.
The Paconii are well attested in Delos (Hatzfeld 1912: 62-4).
iii. Bibliography Bruneau, Ph. (1970): Recherches sur les cultes de Délos à l’époque hellénistique et à l’époque impériale. (BEFAR 217). Paris.
Flambard, J.-M. (1982): 'Observations sur la nature des magistri italiens de Délos', in F. Coarelli et al. (edd.), Delo e l’Italia. (Opuscula Instituti Romani Finlandiae. II). Rome: 67-77.
Hasenohr, C. (2008): 'Mercure à Délos', in A. Bouet (ed.), D’Orient et d’Occident. Mélanges offerts à Pierre Aupert. Bordeaux: 27-38.
Hatzfeld, J. (1912): 'Les Italiens résidant à Délos', BCH 36: 5-218.
Hermary, A., Queyrel, F., Jockey, Ph., Collet, Ph. & Marcadé, J. (1996): Sculptures déliennes, Sites et monuments 17. Athènes-Paris.
Marcadé, J. (1953): 'Les trouvailles de la maison dite de l'Hèrmes, à Délos', BCH 77: 497-615.
Siebert, G. (1966): 'Artémis Sôteira à Délos', BCH 90: 447-59.


i. Private association Probable
Note The syneitheis are the recipients of a dedication, something that underlines their collective identity. A sort of internal organization is indicated by the presence of a priest, after whom the inscription is dated. The priest and the dedicator belonged to the same clan (Paconia).