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Last Updated on 22 Feb 2017

Author: Ilias Arnaoutoglou

CAPInv. 349: synodos ton Herakliaston en Limnais


i. Geographical area Attica with Salamis
ii. Region Attica
iii. Site Paiania (modern toponym) (?)


i. Full name (original language) σύνοδος τῶν Ἡρακλιαστῶν ἐν Λίμναις (SEG 31: 122, ll. 4-5)
ii. Full name (transliterated) synodos ton Herakliaston en Limnais


i. Date(s) 90 (?) AD


ii. Name elements
Theophoric:Herakliastai: from the name of Herakles
Topographical:en Limnais: in the Marshes (Λίμναι, Limnai).
iii. Descriptive terms ἔρανος, eranos
σύνοδος, synodos
Note eranos: SEG 31: 122, l. 38
synodos: SEG 31: 122, ll. 4, 6, 27, 35


i. Source(s) SEG 31: 122 (AD 90 ?)
Note Ed. pr.: GMusJ 9 (1981): 93-8
The stele was inscribed by two different but contemporary hands, a) ll. 1-36 and b) ll. 37-46
Other publications: NGSL 5 (SEG 55: 2097); GRA I 50; AGRW 9

Cf. SEG 36: 198; 39: 311; 44: 255; 48: 2171
Online Resources SEG 31: 122 and AGRW ID 3034
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Greek decree including the decision of the chief-eranistes (ἀρχερανιστής, archeranistes, ll. 3, 10, 18, 34, 41) about orderly behaviour in the premises of the group, financial affairs, election of magistrates, admission of new members, and procurement of necessary foodstuff.
i.c. Physical format(s) Two joining fragments of a pedimental marble stele measuring 0.75x0.447m.
It is decorated with a shield in relief in the tympanon. Perhaps a portrait may have been painted.
ii. Source(s) provenance It is reported as being found in Liopesi (mod. Paiania), now in J. P. Getty Museum, Malibu, California, Inv. no. 78.AA.377.


ii. Leadership Perhaps the official designated as chief-eranistes (ἀρχερανιστής, archeranistes) is the leader of the group, since his involvement in the running of the association seems crucial, ll. 3, 10, 18, 34, 41.
iii. Members The members of the association are described as πλῆθος, plethos in l. 29, and as συνερανισταί, syneranistai in ll. 8-9.
It is noteworthy that the person to be expelled from the group is described as ἐξέρανος, exeranos in l. 44.
iv. Officials Auditors (ἐγλογισταί, eglogistai, l. 30)
Nightwatchman, three (παννυχιστής, pannychistes, ll. 24, 26)
Bailiff (πράκτωρ, praktor, ll. 27-28)
Treasurer (ταμίας, tamias, ll. 13, 15, 29, 37, 42)
Priest (ἱερεύς, hiereus, ll. 16-17)
Known practice of appointment The duties of nightwatchemen will be performed by those who are able to do so (?), if there is no one willing then an allotment (λαχών, lachon) will follow, ll. 23-27.
For the office of bailiff an allotment (κλήρωσις, klerosis) will take place, ll. 27-29.
v. Other staff Individuals responsible for the meat (οἱ ἐπὶ τὰ κρέα, hoi epi ta krea, l. 32).
ἐπὶ τοὺς σ[τρε]πτούς, epi tous s[tre]ptous, ll. 32-33).
Individuals to assist in lending the fund ([εἰς τὸ συνεγ]δανίσαι τὴν ἐνθήκην μετ’ αὐτοῦ | ἀνθρώπους γ, [eis to syneg]danisai ten entheken met'autou anthropous 3, ll. 34-36).
Known practice of appointment Every day two individuals will be allotted (κληροῦσθαι, klerousthai) to be responsible for the sharing of meat (?), ll. 31-33.
The chief-eranistes shall choose (αἱρείσθω, haireistho) 3 individuals from the association for lending the capital, ll. 34-36.
vi. Laws and rules The association through the decision of its chief-eranistes (re-)introduces the following rules:
a) members who fight (μάχην ποιήσῃ, machen poiesei) with each other during the meetings of the group shall be punished with a fine, heavier for the individual who has inititiated (ὁ μὲν ἀρξάμενος, ho men arxamenos) than for the one who responded (ὁ δὲ ἐξακολουθ|ήσας, ho de exakolouthesas) and they are threatened with expulsion (ἐκβιβάσαι, ekbibasai) from the group, following a vote of the members of the group, (καὶ ἐξάνανκα πραττέσθω τῶν σ̣|[υ]νερανιστῶν ψῆφον λαβόντων, kai exananka prattestho ton s[y]neraniston phesphon labonton, ), ll. 5-9.
b) The capital (ἐνθήκη, entheke) collected by the chief-eranistes shall remain intact (μηθεὶς κατὰ μηδένα τρόπον ἁπτ|[έ]σθω π̣λείω τοῦ τόκου τοῦ πεσομένου μὴ πλέω δὲ δαπανάτ|[ω] ὁ ταμίας δραχμῶν [τʹ· ἔδοξε] ἐκ τοῦ τόκου, metheis kata medena tropon apt[e]stho pleio tou tokou tou pesomenou me pleo de dapanat[o] o tamias drachmon [300 edoxe] ek tou tokou); the treasurer who will embezzle the amount of money (ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ ἂν ταμιεύσας τις ἐπιδειχθῇ | [ν]ενοσφισμένος ἀποτινέτω τὸ τριπλοῦν, homoios de kai an tamieusas tis epideichthe [n]enosphismenos, apotineto to triploun) is threatened with hefty fines, ll. 9-16.
c) the individuals who will buy the priesthood (περὶ δὲ ἱερεωσυνῶν ὧν ἄν τις ἀγοράσῃ, peri de hiereosynon hon an tis agorasei) will have to pay immediately and get a certificate (πρόσγραφον, prosgraphon) from the chief-eranistes, ll.17-20.
d) The contractors to procure wine or pork-meat (οἱ δὲ ἐργολαβήσαντες ὑϊκὸν ἢ οἰνικὸν, hoi de ergolabesantes hyikon e oinikon) shall do so in the prescribed time otherwise there is a fine provided; also they shall provide reliable guarantors (ἐνγυητὰς εὐαρέστους, engyetas euarestous), ll. 20-24.
e) Rules about the election of officials, ll. 23-36 (see above).
f) Rule about the admission of new members (ἐὰν δέ τις τῶν ἐκ τοῦ ἐράνου τέκνον τί̣σι̣ θέλῃ ἰσάγιν, ean de tis ton ek tou eranou teknon tisi thelei isagin), different rate for fathers introducing their sons, ll. 38-39.
g) Obligation of accountants to check the accounts of the treasurer (οἱ ἐγλογισταὶ ὀμόσαντες ἀποδῶσι τῷ ἀρχερανιστῇ τὸν λόγον καὶ ἐπιδίξωσι εἴ τι ὀφίλι ὁ ταμίας, hoi eglogistai omosantes apodosi toi archeranistei ton logon kai epidixosi ei ti ophili ho tamias), ll. 40-42.
h) Different rules concerning the provision of wood, sacrificial animal, a crown (ll. 36-38); to be noted the expulsion provided for those who do not provide wood (ξύλα δὲ ἐγδιδόσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ καθ’ ἔτος ταμίου τὰς δὲ φορὰς καταφέριν τῷ ταμίᾳ ἐπάναγκες ἰς τὰς ἐγδόσις· ὁ δὲ μὴ κατενένκας ἀποτινέτω τὸ διπλοῦν ὁ δὲ μὴ δοὺς τὸ κάθολον ἐξέρανος ἔστω·, xyla d' egdidosthai hypo tou kath' etous tamiou tas de phoras katapherin toi tamiai epanankes eis tas egdosis; ho de me katenenkas apotineto to diploun ho de me dous to katholon exeranos esto) ll. 42-45.
vii. Judicial system There are sanctions prescribed on several instances, ranging from fines (light or hefty, ll. 7-8, 15-16, 22, 26-27, 34) to expulsion from the group (ll. 9, 44) for any violation of the rules introduced.
viii. Obligations The members are obliged to pay admission fee, ll. 41-42; to provide wood and a crown, ll. 42-46.


i. Treasury/Funds The association had a capital fund (ἐνθήκη, entheke) formed by a contribution of the chief-eranistes and the interest, ll. 9-11.
ii. Realty There is a reference in l. 45 to a grove (ἄλσος, alsos).
iii. Income The attested income of the association derived mainly from the fines imposed on members and magistrates for various violations.


ii. Gender Men
Note Μᾶρκος Αἰμίλιος Εὐχάριστος Παιανιεύς, Athenian Onomasticon s.v. (17)
iii. Age Adults
iv. Status According to Baslez 2004: 107 the members of the group are locals.


i. Assemblies The association met probably every month, ll. 2-3: Μουνιχιῶνος ὀκτὼ | καὶ δεκάτῃ, Mounychionos (sc. April/May) okto kai dekatei. The meeting is designated in ll. 29-30 as ἀγ|ορᾶς γενομένης, agoras genomenes.
ii. Meetings and events There is a reference to a banquet to which foodstuff should be procured, ll. 20-21: οἱ δὲ ἐργολαβήσαντες ὑϊκὸν ἢ οἰνικὸν μ|[ὴ] ἀποκαταστήσαντες ἐν ᾧ δειπν[οῦ]σιν ἐνιαυτῷ, hoi de ergolabesantes hyikon e oinikon me apokatastesantes en how deipn[ou]sin eniautoi.
iii. Worship The tresurer is to provide a sacrificial animal (θῦμα, thyma) to the god (presumably Heracles?), ll. 38-39.
Deities worshipped Heracles, Herakles ?


i. Comments Raubitscheck 1981 has claimed that the group should be identified with that of IG II2 1369 (CAPInv. 308). Cf. Arnaoutoglou 2003: 83-4.
The decree was issued in the archonship of Titos Flavios Konon.
iii. Bibliography Arnaoutoglou, I. (1994), ‘Archeranistes and its meaning in inscriptions’, ZPE 104: 107-10.
Arnaoutoglou, I. (2003), Thusias heneka kai sunousias. Private religious associations in Hellenistic Athens. Athens.
Baslez, M.-F. (2004), ‘Les notables entre eux. Recherches sur les associations d’Athènes à l’époque romaine’, in S. Follet (ed.), L’Hellénisme d’époque romaine: Nouveaux documents, nouvelles approches (Ier s. a.C. – IIIe s.p.C.) (Actes du colloque international à la mémoire de Louis Robert, Paris, 7-8 juillet 2000), Paris: 105-20.
Byrne, S. (2003), Roman citizens of Athens. Leuven: 243-4, 522.
Raubitschek, A. (1981), ‘A new Attic club (eranos)’, GMusJ 9: 93-8.
San Nicolo, S. (1927), ‘Zur Vereinsgerichtsbarkeit im hellenistischen Agypten’, in H. Swoboda (ed.), Epitymbion, Reichenberg: 255-300.


i. Private association Certain
Note The association displays all the hallmarks of a private association: distinct name, membership, organization, property and durability.