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Last Updated on 13 Jun 2019

Author: Stella Skaltsa

CAPInv. 429: U-AEI-005


i. Geographical area Aegean Islands
ii. Region Euboea
iii. Site Chalkis


i. Association with unknown name U-AEI-005


i. Date(s) 25 BC


iii. Descriptive terms σύνοδος, synodos
κοινόν, koinon
Note synodos (IG XII 9 916, l. 8)
koinon (IG XII 9 916, l. 20)


i. Source(s) IG XII 9 916 (25 BC)
Online Resources IG XII 9 916
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script List recording financial contributions and the enrollment of 'gymnasiarchs' and other 'groups' in the gymnasiarchy of Aulos Salarios in Greek.
i.c. Physical format(s) Marble stele with moulding. H. 31 x W. 44-51 x Th. 13 cm.
ii. Source(s) provenance Found in the settlement of Dokos ? (Δουκός in IG) in Chalkis. Now in Chalkis museum.


iii. Members Enrollment of new members - three categories:
ἀπὸ ἡβητηρίας, apo hebeterias (l. 22) - upon completion of the ephebate
ἀπὸ κληρονομιῶν, apo kleronomion (l. 30) - hereditary line
ἀπὸ [αγ]ών[ω]ν, apo agonon (l. 33) - contests

iv. Officials γραμματεύς, grammateus (l. 2)
ταμίας ἐπὶ τῶν περιόντων, tamias epi ton perionton (l. 3)
ἱερεύς, hiereus (l. 4)
γυμνασιαρχών, gymnasiarchon (l. 5)

Eponymous officials The secretary, the treasurer, the priest of Silanos and the gymnasiarch act as quasi-eponymoi; the text of the inscription is dated after the eponymous archon of Chalkis (Menephron, l. 1) and the aforementioned officials (Giannakopoulos 2012: 214).
Known practice of appointment gymnasiarch: Aulos Salarios son of Manios took over the office of the gymnasiarchy after the promise to do so (ἐπανγ[ε]ιλαμένου γυμνασιαρχήσειν τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν, epangeilamenou gymnasiarchesein ton eniauton, ll. 17-18).

v. Other staff καταμήνιοι γυμνασίαρχοι, katamenioi gymnasiarchoi (l. 9): those contributing 120 denaria each to the koinon were appointed monthly gymnasiarchs. They were registered as gymnasiarchs, ἐνεγράφησαν γυμνασίαρχοι, enegraphesan gymnasiarchoi ( ll. 21-22)
Known practice of appointment The katamenioi gymnasiarchoi were elected (l. 9, εἱρέθησαν) after donating 120 sacred denarii each (ll. 19-22).


i. Treasury/Funds Leukios Kousonios Agathon dedicated (ἀνέθηκεν, anetheken) to the synodos 3000 sacred denaria (ll. 6-8).
Sixteen individuals donated (ἔδωκεν, edoken) to the koinon 120 denarii each (ll. 19-22). On account of their benevolence they were elected katamenioi gymnasiarchoi and were registered as gymnasiarchs (εἱρέθησαν καταμήνιοι γυμνασίαρχοι, heirethesan katamenioi gymnasiarchoi, l. 9; ἐνεγράφησαν γυμνα-
σίαρχοι, enegraphesan gymnasiarchoi, ll. 21-22). In total they donated 1920 denarii.
All this would point to the existence of a treasury.


i. Number The exact number of members cannot be determined with accuracy.
There were sixteen katamenioi gymnasiarchs, sixteen members registered apo hebeterias (after completing their ephebate, ll. 21-2), six members registered apo kleronomion (rights of inheritance, ll. 29-30), ca. 49 members ἀπὸ [...]ων[.]ν (l. 33) (note that Ziebarth in IG restored ἀπὸ ἀγώνων).
If one also counts the officials then the unnamed association would have been comprised of ca. 100 people.
ii. Gender Men
Note All names are males, something that can be further corroborated by the gymnasial connotations of the unnamed association.
iii. Age Children
Note Given the gymnasium context of the unnamed associations, members could belong to various age groups, most notably to adults and elders.
iv. Status From the 18 individuals making contributions to the synodos and the koinon, including the gymnasiarch who took over the expenses of the office at his own expense, seven of them bore Greek names, two of them bore Roman names, whereas the remaining nine were freedmen or Italians active in Greece (Roman gentilicium with Greek cognomen).

apo hebeterias:
9 members with Greek names
7 members with Roman names

apo kleronomion:
4 members with Greek name
1 member with Roman name
1 member whose name combines Greek and Roman elements

apo agonon:
25 members bearing Greek names
2 members with Roman name
20 members who had a Roman gentilicium with a Greek cognomen

Some contributors and some new members share the same gentilicum (Lollii, Cornelii, Septomii, Lutatii) (Giannakopoulos 2012: 216).


iii. Worship Leukios Kousonios Agathon (Lucius Cusonius Agathon) dedicated to the synodos 3000 sacred denarii (hiera dinaria trischilia l. 8). The adjective hieros pertains to the religious sphere, and it would thus seem reasonable to suggest that the money would have been allocated to religious purposes/ cultic activities.

ἱερεύς Μάρκου Ἰουνίου Σειλανοῦ, hiereus Markou Iouniou Seilanou, l. 4: Eukles son of Bakchides was the priest of Marcus Iunius Silanos.
Deities worshipped Marcus Iunius Silanus


ii. Interaction abroad The cult of Marcus Iunius Silanus, underlines the close links between the association and Roman power, if not a direct link to the Roman Imperial house, at least a link to Romans exerting influence on a political level. M. Iunius Silanus was Mark Antony's proquaestor (antitamias) and consul in 25 BC under Augustus.


i. Comments It is not clear whether the terms, synodos and koinon, mentioned in the text refer to the same body or whether they denote two distinct bodies. These two entities, the synodos and the koinon are the recipients of donations; 3000 denaria were dedicated to the synodos for cultic purposes by Lucius Cusonius Agathon, whereas 1920 denaria were donated to the koinon by the katamenioi gymnasiarchoi.
Although our unnamed entity was active in a gymnasial context (gymnasiarch and new members enrolled upon completion of the ephebate), it should not be identified with the ephebes or the neoi, the gymnasium groups par excellence. Membership fell into three different categories (completion of the ephebate, hereditary rights and probably victories in contests), that transcended the traditional age groups. Giannakopoulos (2012: 215-6), on the basis of the priest of Silanus and the money set aside for cultic purposes, puts forward that this group was also engaged in cultic activities.
iii. Bibliography Giannakopoulos, N. (2012) Θεσμοί και λειτουργία των πόλεων της Εύβοιας κατά τους ελληνιστικούς και ρωμαϊκούς χρόνους. Thessalonike: esp. 211-19.


i. Private association Possible
Note The descriptive terms, synodos and koinon, and the internal hierarchy (officials) point towards a formally organized group, centered in the gymnasium (see XII.i) but not to be identified with the ephebes or the neoi, as membership was more inclusive (three categories of members). What remains problematic is the private nature of the group in light of the gymnasium context.