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Last Updated on 01 Jul 2019

Author: Benedikt Eckhardt

CAPInv. 461: hoi synbiotai K[a]ba[l]loi


i. Geographical area Western Asia Minor
ii. Region Phrygia
iii. Site Apameia


i. Full name (original language) οἱ συνβιωταὶ Κ[ά]βα[λ]λοι (Waltzing 1895: 34-5, no. 118, ll. 6-7)
ii. Full name (transliterated) hoi synbiotai K[a]ba[l]loi


i. Date(s) i - iii AD


ii. Name elements
Geographical:The Kabalis lies in South-east Lydia; but cf. the commentary below for debate on Καβάλλων, Kaballon.


i. Source(s) Waltzing 1895: 34-5, no. 118 (i - iii AD)
Note See also:
IGR IV 769
Dittmann-Schöne V.4.4

IGR IV 796, following Ramsay, reads in l. 7 κὲ λβ’ ἄλλων, ke lb’ allon, instead of Kαβάλλων, Kaballon.
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Epitaph. Greek.
ii. Source(s) provenance Apameia


iv. Honours/Other activities The συνβιωταί, synbiotai, have some part in the erection of a tomb, paid for and erected by Apphia for herself and her son, an emporiarches (l. 2).


i. Comments Ramsay 1897: 470, no. 309 and Dittmann-Schöne 2010: 230-1 believe that the designation emporiarches for Apphia's son points to a symbiosis of emporoi, but this is by no means clear; Royer 2005: 385-7 is correct in rejecting this interpretation. Emporiarches might just as well have been written here to show that the son had an important position in the city.

More problematic is the implication of the adjective K[α]βά[λ]λων, K[a]ba[l]lon. If this is the correct reading, it is difficult not to think of the region Kabalis, not too far from Apameia, although one would expect Καβαλέων, Kabaleon. Royer rejects this view and points to an unpublished insight by Drew-Bear, who relates the designation to καβάλλης, kaballes, "worn-out horse". The συνβιωταί, synbiotai, would then use an ironic self-designation for their "association joyeuse". While this suggestions fits the grammar, it is much more unusual than the idea that the family of the deceased had roots in the Kabalis and therefore joined a group of "synbiotai from the Kabalis" in Apameia.
iii. Bibliography Dittmann-Schöne, I. (2010), Die Berufsvereine in den Städten des kaiserzeitlichen Kleinasiens. 2nd. ed. Regensburg.
Ramsay, W.M. (1897), The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia. Vol. I.2. Oxford.
Royer, A. (2005), Associations professionnelles et groupes de gens de métier dans les cités grecques d'Asie Mineure à l'époque impériale (Ier - Ve siècles ap. J.-C.). Lyon.
Waltzing, J.-P. (1899), Étude historique sur les corporations professionnelles chez les Romains depuis les origines jusqu’à la chute de l’Empire d’Occident. Vol. III. Leuven.


i. Private association Probable
Note Doubts remain regarding the purpose of the group, but nothing militates against seeing it as a private association.
ii. Historical authenticity Certain