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Last Updated on 01 Mar 2017

Author: Paschalis Paschidis

CAPInv. 512: U-MAC-003


i. Geographical area Macedonia
ii. Region Bottia
iii. Site Beroia


i. Association with unknown name U-MAC-003


i. Date(s) f. ii AD


i. Source(s) I. Beroia 383 (f. ii AD)
Online Resources I. Beroia 383 and AGRW ID 942
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Greek funerary
i.c. Physical format(s) Crowned stele with relief portraying a man holding a rudis.
ii. Source(s) provenance Found near the northwestern gate of Beroia, presumably from an extra muros cemetery.


ix. Privileges If this was indeed an association, I. Beroia 383 was the funerary monument of one of the members of the associations.


i. Number If I. Beroia 383 is a funerary monument paid for by a gladiatorial association, there are fourteen members, not including the deceased summa rudis.
ii. Gender Men
Note All members are men.
iv. Status Whether I. Beroia 383 attests to the existence of an association or not, the 'undersigned' (οἱ ὑπογεγραμμένοι, hoi hypogegrammenoi, l. 1-2) are all involved in gladiatorial games: the specialties recorded are those of the summa rudis, the secunda rudis, the herald (πραίκων, praikon, l. 15) and of the trumpeter (σαλπιστής, salpistes, l. 16). Bouley and Proeva 1997: 83-84 use this inscription as evidence for their theory that gladiatorial associations did not normally include ex-gladiators among their members. Athiktos, however (l. 8) seems to be a gladiatorial name, and there is no reason to exclude a priori the possibility that some members of gladiatorial associations were gladiators or ex-gladiators (Nigdelis 2000: 141-5 no. 3). In any case, the fact that all of the men recorded here are identified by a simple name (in the Greek or Roman onomastic formula), occasionally followed by their profession, but not by a patronymic, allow us to suppose that some of them at least may have been of servile status (with the two bearing Roman names obviously being freedmen).


iii. Bibliography Bouley, É. and Proeva, N. (1997), ‘Un secunda rudis président d’un collège à Stobi en Macédoine romaine’, in C. Brixhe (ed.), Poikila Epigraphica, Paris: 83-7.
Nigdelis, P.M. (2000), ‘Μακεδονικὰ ἐπιγραφικά’, Tekmeria 5: 133-48.


i. Private association Possible
Note There is no reference to any sort of association in I. Beroia 383; the 'undersigned' (οἱ ὑπογεγραμμένοι, hoi hypogegrammenoi ll. 1-2) who honour the dead and presumably pay for his funerary monument may simply be the deceased's colleagues, and the clear hierarchy of their list of names (first the summa rudis, then the secunda rudis, then the others in two columns, with the trumpeter wrapping up the list) may simply be a professional hierarchy not reflecting their role in an association. Nevertheless, one cannot exclude the possibility of a collectivity, either a gladiatorial familia or an association of professionals involved in gladiatorial games, as in the parallel from Stoboi (CAPInv. 510).