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Last Updated on 01 Mar 2017

Author: Paschalis Paschidis

CAPInv. 518: synetheis


i. Geographical area Macedonia
ii. Region Chalkidike
iii. Site Kassandreia


i. Full name (original language) συνήθεις (Robinson 1938: 63)
ii. Full name (transliterated) synetheis


i. Date(s) i / ii AD


i. Source(s) Robinson 1938: 63 (i/ii AD)
Online Resources Robinson 1938: 63 (see XII.i: Comments, below)
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Greek honorific inscription (?)
i.c. Physical format(s) Lower fragment of a stele.
ii. Source(s) provenance Found at Nea Potidaia.


ii. Leadership ἀρχισυνάγωγος, archisynagogos (Robinson 1938: 63) is the leader of the synetheis. It should be noted that this archisynagogos may be a woman, depending on the restoration of the text (see XII.i: Comments, below).
iii. Members The members are termed συνήθεις, synetheis (Robinson 1938: 63)


ii. Gender Men
Note For the possibility that the association's leader is a woman, see XII.i: Comments, below.


iv. Honours/Other activities Honours for an individual or for the association's leader (see XII.i: Comments, below).


i. Comments Both versions of the text offered by Robinson are inexact. Ll. 1-2 are given as [- - -]ΙΑΝ · Σεκo(ῦ)νδ[ον] | [- - -] ἀρχισυναγωγὸ[ν] ([- - -]IAN · Seko(u)nd[on - - - ] archisynagogo[n]) by Robinson 1938: 63 and as [- - -]ιαν[ῷ] Σεκo(ύ)νδ[ῳ] | [- - -] ἀρχισυναγώγ[ῳ] ([- - -]ian[oi] Seko(u)nd[oi - - - ] archisynagog[oi]) by Robinson 1939: 62.
The inscription in fact reads (photo and squeeze): [- - -]ΙΑΝ · Σεκoνδ[- - -] | [- - -] ἀρχισυναγωγ[- - -] | [- - -]vac συνήθεις vac, [- - -]IAN · Sekond[- - -] | [- - -] archisynagog[- - -] | [- - -]vac synetheis vac

In l. 2 a faint trace of a circular letter can either be an omicron or an omega. Robinson's (1939: 62) [- - -]ιαν[ῷ], [ - - - ]ian[oi], in l. 1 is impossible, given the presence of the middle dot; the dative is possible only if we assume an omission of the letter by the engraver. Moreover, the editorial correction Σεκο(ύ)νδ[ῳ], Seko(u)nd[oi] (or Σεκο(ῦ)νδ[ον], Seko(u)nd[on]) is unwarranted, since Σεκόνδος, Sekondos, and Σεκόνδα, Sekonda, are forms epigraphically attested.

Robinson seems to be certain that the name in l. 1 is the name of the archisynagogos mentioned in l. 2, either in the accusative (1938) or in the dative (1939). If that is the case, the accusative of l. 1 (unless we suppose an engraver's mistake) would oblige us to supplement ἀρχισυναγωγ[όν], archisynagog[on] in l. 2 and understand that this archisynagogos was a woman, with a nomen ending in -ia. Nevertheless, the name in the accusative can also be the name of an honorand, and the archisynagogos (of unknown name and gender), in the nominative, may simply be the dedicant along with the rest of the synetheis.
iii. Bibliography Robinson, D.M. (1938), ‘Inscriptions from Macedonia’, TAPA 69: 43-76, esp. 63.
Robinson, D.M. (1939), ‘Addenda to T.A.P.A. LXIX, 43-76’, TAPA 70: 62-3.


i. Private association Certain
Note A name for the members (synetheis) and a leader (archisynagogos) are the two elements pointing to a private association in this case.