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Last Updated on 02 Mar 2017

Author: Paschalis Paschidis

CAPInv. 814: U-MAC-012


i. Geographical area Macedonia
ii. Region Mygdonia
iii. Site Thessalonike


i. Association with unknown name U-MAC-012


i. Date(s) ii AD


i. Source(s) IG X.2.1 299 (ii AD)
Online Resources IG X.2.1 299 and TM 127773
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Funerary epigram in Greek
i.c. Physical format(s) Stele with relief depicting Aphrodite (in the Fréjus statue type, very popular in Thessalonike; see Voutiras 1999: 1330 with earlier literature).
ii. Source(s) provenance Western Thessalonike


iii. Members If IG X.2.1 299 refers to an association (see under XIII.ii: Historical authenticity, below), its members were called θρησκευταί, threskeutai (ll. 6-7). On the term, which appears to be a Macedonian particularity, see Foschia 2004.
v. Other staff In Voutiras' interpretation of the epigram, the deceased was a priestess of Aphrodite Nymphia.


i. Comments The epigram was usually interpreted as referring to a Thessalonican courtesan (see ll. 1-2: πολλ<ά>κι νυφευθῖσ’ ἀγ<ά>μοις ἐν ἐμοῖς θαλάμοισι, poll<a>ki nypheuthis' ag<a>mois en emois thalamoisi, "many times betrothed in my unwed chambers"), Kleonike, also named Kyrilla (see the bibliography in the IG X.2.1 299, to which add Düll 1975: 121 and Wrede 1981: 62), whose funerary monument was erected διὰ θρησκευτῶν φιλότητα, dia threskeuton philoteta, "out of the love of her admirers" in Robert's interpretation (1946: 133 n. 5).

Voutiras 2001: 111-3, however (followed by Nigdelis 2010: 17), interpreted ll. 1-2 as a reference to the ritual of ἱερογαμία, hierogamia, the reenactment of the sacred marriage of Aphrodite Nymphia; in this interpretation, the threskeutai who erected the monument were the members of a cult association of Aphrodite Nymphia.
iii. Bibliography Düll, S. (1975), ‘Götter auf makedonischen Grabstelen’ in Essays in memory of Basil Laourdas. Thessaloniki: 115-35, esp. 121.
Foschia, L. (2004), ‘Le nom du culte, θρησκεία, et ses dérivés à l’époque impériale” in S. Follet (ed.), L’hellénisme d’époque romaine. Nouveaux documents, nouvelles approches (Ier s.a.C.-IIIe s. p.C.). Actes du colloque international à la mémoire de Louis Robert, Paris, 7-8 juillet 2000, Paris 15-35.
Nigdelis, P.M. (2010), ‘Voluntary Associations in Roman Thessalonike: in Search of Identity and Support in a Cosmpolitan Society’, in L. Nasrallah, Ch. Bakirtzis and S. Friesen (eds.), From Roman to Early Christian Thessalonike: Studies in Religion and Archaeology. Cambridge Mass., London: 13-47, esp. 17 and no 28.
Robert, L. (1946), Hellenica. Recueil d'épigraphie, de numismatique et d'antiquités grecques. vol. 2. Paris: 123-41, esp. 133.
Voutiras, E. (1999), ‘Η λατρεία της Αφροδίτης στην περιοχή τοῦ Θερμαίου κόλπου’ in Ancient Macedonia VI. Papers read at the Sixth International Symposium held in Thessaloniki, October 15-19, 1996. Thessaloniki: 1329-43, esp. 1330.
Voutiras, E. (2001), ‘Aphrodite Nymphia’ in Chr. Reusser (ed.), Griechenland in der Kaiserzeit: neue Funde und Forschungen zu Skulptur, Architektur und Topographie. Kolloquium zum sechzigen Geburtstag von Prof. Dietrich Willers, Bern, 12-13 Juni 1998. Bern: 107-23.
Wrede, Η. (1981), Consecratio in formam deorum: vergöttlichte Privatpersonen in der Römischen Kaiserzeit. Mainz: 54-5, 62 and no 325.


i. Private association Possible
Note If one accepts Voutiras' religious interpretation of the epigram, there is no doubt that the threskeutai mentioned are members of a private religious association. If one does not accept Voutiras' interpretation of the epigram, this is obviously not a source for any association.