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Last Updated on 24 Jun 2019

Author: Jan-Mathieu Carbon

CAPInv. 829: hoi syggeneis


i. Geographical area Western Asia Minor
ii. Region Caria
iii. Site Halikarnassos


i. Full name (original language) οἱ συγγενεῖς (Robert 1937: 466-68, lines 3-5)
ii. Full name (transliterated) hoi syggeneis


i. Date(s) 200 (?) BC - 100 (?) AD


ii. Name elements
i.e. relatives, whether a coherent, expanded or fictive family.


i. Source(s) Robert 1937: 466-8 (ca. 200 BC - 100 AD, with improved text).
Note First edition: Bérard 1891: 550-1, no. 22.
Online Resources PHI: Halikarnassos 118
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Unclear type, possibly the charter (foundational) document of the association, as it covers both the property and the rituals of the group, apparently in some detail (for a much better preserved comparandum from Halikarnassos, see CAP Inv. 830). In Greek.
i.c. Physical format(s) Marble block, broken on all sides, though the left margin of the inscription appears to be consistently preserved.
ii. Source(s) provenance No archaeological context, found reused in the house of Hadji Ahmet Tagliouglou in Bodrum (Halikarnassos). Now presumed lost.


ii. References to buildings/objects οἰκία, oikia (line 4)
This is probably reference to a cultic building, belonging to the familial association.

ἀγρός, agros (lines 13 [probably] and 16)
These lines refer to a field, perhaps bequeathed as part of the constitution of the group; the field was likely extra-urban.

ἐμ πόλει, em polei (line 7)
A fragmentary phrase, ἐμ πόλει πρὸς τοῖς... appears to situate a building or an activity of the group in the city of Halikarnassos itself.


iii. Members οἱ συγγενεῖς, hoi syggeneis (lines 3-5)
Family members, definitely male but possibly of both genders.

οἱ ἐκ τοῦ γένους, hoi ek tou genous (line 10)
Apart from the name οἱ συγγενεῖς, there is also a reference to τῶν ἐκ τοῦ γένους, implying male descendants (perhaps of the individual called Epikrates, see below XII.Notes).
vi. Laws and rules The inscription clearly seems to be a set of rules, possibly as part of a charter document for the group: cf. the imperatives ἔστω (line 4) and ἐξέστω (line 15), as well as an apparent penalty clause, lines 13-14: ἢ εἴκοσι μηδὲ ὁμόρω[ν —]η μηδὲ παρευρέσει μη[δεμίᾳ —]. Line 11 highlights that these rules envisage the passage of time and the perpetuation of certain aspects of the group, its property and obligations: ... ὁ χρόνος διέλθῃ εἰς [—].
ix. Privileges γέρα, gera (line 8)
Apart from the attribution of the oikia (cultic building, line 4) which is granted to the syggeneis, and other fragmentary sections, the text makes an allusive mention of priestly perquisites in lines 8-9: γέρα ἐν ο[— + (pars) τῶν | σ]πλάγχνων. These privileges may have been granted to the founder or priest (or both); the remaining meat from sacrifices was perhaps distributed to members.


i. Treasury/Funds The group administered funds, see VIII.iii below.
ii. Realty οἰκία, oikia (line 4)
See above VI.ii.

ἀγρός, agros (lines 13 [probably] and 16)
iii. Income Line 13 mentions the probable requirement to lease out the field (see VIII.ii): [μ]ισθώσοντας τὸν ἀ[γρὸν —]. Funds for the cult were no doubt derived from the renting out of this field.


ii. Gender Men
Note Definitely men, perhaps women too, see above VII.iii. Women may reasonably be presumed to have also been included in the group of syggeneis.


iii. Worship From the mention of gera (see above VII.ix), it is clear that the association engaged in cult, specifically in sacrificial ritual.


i. Comments Founder or priest: possibly the individual called Ἐπικράτης, Epikrates (no father's name, line 8), who seems to receive the gera (priestly perquisites) of the cult.
iii. Bibliography Bérard, V. (1891), 'Inscriptions d'Asie Mineure', BCH 15: 538-62.
Robert, L. (1937), Etudes anatoliennes, Paris.


i. Private association Probable
Note The Carian syngeneia is almost always a civic subdivision from the late Classical period, though no doubt also one with familial roots (see e.g. CAP Inv. 843). Here, given the character of the inscription and the absence of evidence for public syngeneiai at Halikarnassos, the term syggeneis very probably indicates a 'private' familial association.