|i.||Geographical area||Western Asia Minor|
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Last Updated on 18 Jun 2019
CAPInv. 974: hoi metẹchontes tou prọ [po]ḷẹos hierou Kaiontos M[an]dr[o]u
|i.||Full name (original language)||οἱ μετέ̣χοντες τοῦ πρὸ̣ [πό]λ̣ε̣ως ἱεροῦ Καίοντος Μ[άν]δρ[ο]υ (I.Kyme 37 ll. 4-5)|
|ii.||Full name (transliterated)||hoi metẹchontes tou prọ [po]ḷẹos hierou Kaiontos M[an]dr[o]u|
|i.||Date(s)||i BC - i AD|
IV. NAME AND TERMINOLOGY
|i.||Source(s)||I.Kyme 37 (i BC/i AD)|
The document is dated after the presidency of Kyme (l. 2: ἐπὶ πρυτάνεως Κύμης)
The date of the text in the early 1st century AD is based on letter style according to Keil (1911: 138). Vermaseren dates the text to the late 1st century BC (CCCA I no. 528).
Keil 1911: 113-40
CCCA I no. 528
Harland 2014: no. 105
See also SEG 55: 1314
AGRW ID 7065
|i.a.||Source type(s)||Epigraphic source(s)|
|i.b.||Document(s) typology & language/script||
Purchase in Greek of property on behalf of those partaking (metechontes) in the hieron pro poleos of Kaiontos Mandrou.
Lines 1-40 are partially preserved.
Slab of blue-grey marble.
H. 74 x W. 25-29 x Th. 8 cm.
|ii.||Source(s) provenance||Found in Kyme. Now lost.|
VI. BUILT AND VISUAL SPACE
|ii.||References to buildings/objects||
σὺν τῇ] προσκειμ[ένῃ στο]ᾷ, syn tei proskeimene stoa (ll. 7-8)
τῶν οἰκημάτων, ton oikematon (l. 23)
οἰκήματα τὰ προγεγραμμένα καὶ ἱερά, oikemata ta progegrammena kai hiera (ll. 42-3)
ἀρχίγαλλος, archigallos (l. 1)
The word gallos can stand for the priest of Kybele and of the Syrian Goddess (Lucian, On the Syrian Goddess). According to Pliny (NH 5.147) the priests of the Mother of the Gods drew their name from the Gallus river in Galatia. Lane (1996) puts forward that the Gauls gave their name to the priesthood.
|Eponymous office||The archigallos seems to be the eponymous of the association, as his title and name is carved on top of the text.|
οἱ μετέχοντες τῶν ἱερῶν, hoi metechontes ton hieron (ll. 13-4)
οἱ μετέχοντες [μύσ]τα[ι]?, hou metechontes [mys]ta[i]? (ll. 30-1)
οἱ μέτεχοντες ἱεροί, hoi metechontes hieroi (l. 35)
οἱ ἱεροί, hoi hieroi (l. 45)
οἱ κατασταθέντες πράκτορες, hoi katastathentes praktores (l. 15): appointed committee in charge of collecting money for the purchase of a property with buildings.
10 praktores in total.
Polito (2005: 527) is in doubt as to the nature of praktores, i.e. ad hoc committee or officials of the association. It should be noted however that the duties of a praktor are normally of financial nature, namely the collection of taxes and a praktor could be in charge of settling financial disputes (with regard to debt). In the document there is explicit mention of the acquisition of landed property and buildings (l. 14: πράσεως, praseos) which went through the praktores. This would indicate that the praktores were probably an ad hoc committee dealing exclusively with the purchase of the property.
|Known practice of appointment||οἱ κατασταθέντες πράκτορες, hoi katastathentes praktores: they were appointed|
|viii.||Obligations||The praktores seem to be responsible for taking care and overseeing the sacred things and the buildings together with the agoranomos (ll. 24-7). The text is poorly preserved and it is uncertain whether their responsibilities extended to the organization of the mysteries.|
According to Engelmann (1976: 92) those contributing to the purchase of landed property were entitled to partake in the mysteries; this right was passed to their descendants too. It should be noted, however, that lines 27-32 are poorly preserved and this poses some difficulties in fully comprehending the text.
Lines 37-42 contain promises and threats for the participants in the mysteries: 'whosoever participates in the mysteries, if he keeps them and guards them undisturbed, may he obtain accessible and fruitful land, the birth of legitimate children and participation in all goods, but he who thinks otherwise should obtain the opposite of this' (Graf 2003: 255).
VIII. PROPERTY AND POSSESSIONS
|i.||Treasury/Funds||Each contributor gave103 denarii for the purchase of landed property (ll. 13-4).|
|ii.||Realty||The inscription records the acquisition of landed property (he ktesis, l. 12) with buildings (oikemata, stoa). The property was purchased by Herakleides son of Zopyros Olympikos on behalf of those partaking in the cult (ll. 3-5). Herakleides also consecrated the land and all the sacred things/buildings (ll. 44-5).|
The names of 41 contributors and 10 praktores are recorded in the stele. If one counts the archigallos (l. 1), then 52 members are attested in total.
Women who contributed to the purchase of the property outnumber the male contributors (30 women compared to 11 men).
The names of women are recorded in separate columns (three columns) from the names of male contributors (one column).
The appointed committee of praktores consisted of men only.
From the personal names the following can be inferred about membership profile (ethnic and social):
- Roman (Korboulon [l. 58a], Tettaiios [l. 49, 59a], Mettia [l. 55b], Bassa [l. 56b], Prima [l. 50c], Fausteina [l. 55b]) as well as Greek names are attested for both male and female contributors. However, Greek names outnumber Roman names.
- indigenous names are also attested (e.g. Papias [l. 50a]).
- contributors' names are not followed by patronymics.
- only the names of the praktores are followed by patronymics (ll. 17-24) except of Eukarpos (l. 22). Although the text in lines 17-24 is partially preserved it appears that the praktores bear Greek names.
- Eukarpos, one of the praktores, is called enteimou demosiou, a phrase that points to a public servant.
- the name Ergastikos (l. 54) may suggest a servile origin.
|ii.||Meetings and events||Mysteries were performed and it seems that an agoranomos was taken care of it. Those taking part in the mysteries enjoyed certain privileges (ll. 37-42; see above VII.ix).|
|Deities worshipped||Kaion Mandros|
|i.||Local interaction||It seems that during the mysteries the association paid tribute to the Roman emperor, the demos of the Rhomaioi and the demos of the Kymaians (ll. 27-30).|
Engelmann put forward that this association centered around the cult of Kybele given that the official of the association is called archigallos and that there is a strong presence of women (1976: 89). He recalled associations of Kybele attested in Lydia and called doumos. This view is accepted by Vermaseren (1987) and de Jong (1997: 145 n. 90). Polito (2005) also supports the view that the association is a doumos for the cult of Kybele.
It should be noted, however, that Kybele is not named in the inscription and thus a connection with the cult of Kybele is far from clear unless the presence of an archigallos is considered conclusive evidence in support of this view.
CCCA I: Vermaseren, M.J. (1977), Corpus cultus Cybelae Attidisque. Vol. 1. Leiden.
Graf, F. (2003),'Lesser Mysteries and Dionysiac ritual', in M.B. Cosmopoulos (ed.), Greek Mysteries: The Archaeology of Greek Secret Cults. London: 241-62.
Engelmann, H. (1976), Die Inschriften von Kyme. (IK 5). Bonn.
Keil, J. (1911), 'Mysterieninschrift aus dem äolischen Kyme', JÖAI 14 (Beibl.): 133-40.
Lane, E.N. 1996: 'The name of Cybele's priests the 'Galloi', in E.N. Lane (ed.), Cybele, Attis and Related Cults. Essays in Memory of M.J. Vermaseren. Leiden: 117-33.
Polito, M. (2005), 'IGK 5.37: un doumos a Cuma eolica?', in A. Mele et al. (edd.), Eoli ed Eolide tra madrepatria e colonie. Napoli: 525-32.
Thonemann, P. (2006), 'Neilomadros. A contribution to the history of Greek personal names', Chiron 36: 11-43.
|Note||Although the name of the group is rather vague standing for the cultic community, the group nevertheless displays features of a formally organised group (internal organization, property) which can be identified as a private association.|