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Last Updated on 22 May 2019

Author: Nikolaos Giannakopoulos

CAPInv. 717: phrateres (uncertain reading)


i. Geographical area Western Asia Minor
ii. Region Bithynia
iii. Site Kalchedon


i. Full name (original language) φ̣ρ̣ά̣τ̣ε̣ρες (Ŏğüt-Polat and Şahin 1985: 118 no. 44, l. 6)
ii. Full name (transliterated) phrateres (uncertain reading)


i. Date(s) iii - ii BC


ii. Name elements


i. Source(s) Ŏğüt-Polat and Şahin 1985: 118 no. 44 (iii - ii BC)
Note Cf. I.Kalchedon 31 (with references to older editions and bibliography)
Peek 1981: 291 no. 5 (new reading of ll. 6-7)
SGO II 09 / 07 / 10 Kalchedon
i.a. Source type(s) Epigraphic source(s)
i.b. Document(s) typology & language/script Funerary epigram in Greek for Menios.
i.c. Physical format(s) Pedimental stele with relief representing a sitting man (probably the deceased) and his servant.
ii. Source(s) provenance The inscription was found at Yeldeğirmeni near Kadiköy (Kalchedon).


i. Comments According to Peek’s (1981: 291) reading of l. 6 of Menios’ funerary epigram (φράτερας ὀρφανίσας εἰς Ἀχέροντα μόλεν, phareteras orphanisas eis Acheronta molen), the deceased went to the Acheron making his phrateres orphans. Peek suggested that the latter were members of a religious association to which the deceased himself participated (see below under field XIII.i: Evaluation). However, Peek’s reading is not unanimously accepted (see Merkelbach and Stauber 2001: 09 / 07 / 10 Kalchedon).
iii. Bibliography Ŏğüt-Polat, S. and Şahin, S. (1985), ‘Katalog der bithynischen Inschriften im archäeologishen Museum von Istanbul’, EA 5: 97-121.
Peek, W. (1981), ‘Revisis revidendis’, ZPE 42: 289-91.
Poland, F. (1909), Geschichte des griechischen Vereinswesens. Leipzig.
Ramsay, W.M. (1895-1897), The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia. Oxford.


i. Private association Possible
Note The terms phratra and its derivatives (phratores, phrateres) may denote either an official civic subdivision or a private association (Poland 1909: 52-53), like the Phrygian phratrai (see Ramsay 1895-1897: 142-3 nos. 30-1, 156 no. 65, 609 no. 56; MAMA IV, 23; cf. CAPInv. 450, CAPInv. 451, CAPInv. 452, CAPInv. 466 and CAPInv. 483 respectively). There is nothing in Menios’ epigram to demonstrate with certainty that the phrateres of the deceased – if indeed this is the correct reading – constituted a private association.